Butte, Oct 23--(AP)--A freak of the Friday night earthquake which shook Butte was reported today by a Nissler resident who said that since the quake, which caused $500 damage to his home, his well has been gushing forth hot water in great quantities.
"On Friday afternoon there was about three feet of ice cold water in the well," recounted Henry Calcaterra, Station 4, Nissler, whose home was damaged by the quake. "On Saturday morning I found the yard flooded with hot water which was issuing from the well.
"Although it is now nearly five days since the quake occurred, the well water is still lukewarm."
Appearance of the hot water in the well was explained by the fact that many years ago there were hot springs in the area. It was thought that the force of the temblor caused an internal disturbance, forcing the hot water to the surface.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]


Helena householders, who need men to tear down weakened walls or chimneys or to repair damaged homes or other buildings, can secure skilled or unskilled labor by calling the national reemployment service office at the Chamber of Commerce in the Placer hotel building, it was announced yesterday by O. C. Lamport, secretary.
Mrs. Edith Freeze is in charge of the office, and the telephone number is 37.
Mr. Lamport stated that there is sufficient skilled labor in Montana to take care of Helena's needs, and labor will not be brought in from other cities until the demand warrants such action.
Not Free
Those desiring to obtain labor for this work are urged to personally call at the Chamber of Commerce and outline the work to be done.
The labor furnished by the NRS must be paid for by the property owner on whose property the work is done. House holders who are unable to pay for the labor should make application at Red Cross office, located in the old National Bank of Montana building.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]


The Placer hotel was declared to be "structurally sound" by a group of engineers who made a careful examination of the building yesterday. With the exception of a few plaster cracks the big building suffered no damage whatsoever. Those who made the inspection yesterday were Professor E. R. Dye of the structural engineering department at Montana State college; City Engineer Oscar Baarson, and S. L. Berg, supervising architect for the Federal Housing administration. The three men reached a unanimous decision that the Placer hotel building was perfectly safe, and undamaged.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]

Three Engineers Pass On Building, No Cracks Found

There are no structural defects in the St. Helena cathedral and a certificate of occupancy will be issued to Helena's splendid Catholic edifice today by City Engineer Oscar Baarson following a careful and thorough examination last night.
Despite rumors to the contrary the building is in sound condition, apparently unhurt by the quakes. "The whole structure is built up of structural steel. The stone on the spires is fastened to the steel and while a few cracks occurred between the stones, there is no damage to the building whatever," City Engineer Baarson said.
The building was inspected by G. E. Osterberg, designing engineer for the A. C. M. company in Butte; Art Cook, city engineer in Great Falls and former inspecting engineer for the PWA, and Mr. Baarson. Not a single crack was found in the basement.
Ropes were put up around the cathedral as a precautionary measure to avert possible injury from small pieces of falling stone, the city engineer said.
A group of competent structural engineers will go over the entire building today and a certificate of occupancy will be issued to Father Tougas in the afternoon, he said.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]


One hundred cases of canned peas for earthquake sufferers in Helena will be trucked today, a gift of the Bozeman Canning company, according to notification received Wednesday afternoon by Governor F. H. Cooney from C. L. Kirk, an officer of the company.
Governor Cooney immediately informed the Lewis and Clark county chapter of the Red Cross and arrangements have been made to store the peas at the Hovet Wholesale company, where they will be issued on order of the Red Cross. The governor and the officials of the local chapter of the Red Cross expressed themselves as being deeply grateful to the Bozeman Canning company for its help.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]


Livingston, Oct. 23--Park county's high school building may have to be given repairs, chargeable to earthquake damage, if a bulge that has developed in the south wall of the new portion of the structure shows any tendency to further spreading, it was noted Monday.
Word that the Wilsall high school building had been abandoned brought the comment that Park high also suffered slightly from the tremor of last Friday night. The new aperture was noted Saturday morning by school authorities and the board appraised of the fact.
An investigation was immediately made and the building authorities declared there was no immediate danger as a result of the split wall unless another quake should further weaken the structure.
A constant inspection has been ordered by the authorities and the bulge will be watched with diligence, it was said yesterday.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]


The earthquake refugee shelter at Camp Cooney west of the city was orderly, organized and quiet last night.
Of the 300 who were cared for at the shelter in the first few days after the Friday night quake, only 79 remaining last night.
Those who left the camp said they could stay with friends now, had arranged for use of log cabins at Unionville or Marysville or other nearby communities, planned to fix up sheds, chicken houses or garages for temporary abodes, or could go back to their homes which were not damaged as badly as they first believed.
People Calm
The people were calm and rested. Mothers were feeding their babies milk that had been especially heated by the camp cook. For the smaller children the event is a huge picnic. Impromptu childhood games are organized. Dogs, brought along somehow, enter into the play.
All are carefully and fully clothed and when they get cold, it is only a step into the recreation halls, the kitchen, the office or the infirmary--each of which is heated.
The refugees are housed in national guard tents, erected in regular rows. Blankets are plentiful and additional ones may be had for the asking. There is no heat in the tents but electric lights are provided.
Officials in charge yesterday had difficulty in dissuading a motion picture photographer from posing the refugees around wind-swept tables in front of the tents. The photographer howled and threatened, even remarked he would "get the officials jobs" if he weren't allowed to take the posed pictures.
Faked Stuff
"His representation of what is going on at the camp would have been absolutely false and we prohibited him from taking such pictures," one woman in charge said. "The people here never have had to eat in the open. Their meals are served in the warm buildings."
Three plentiful meals are served every day, each made up of substantial energy-giving food, the official explained. The cooking is done by a man from the transient camp who, on his feet many hours at a time, several times during the last four nights has risen to heat milk for any one of the babies in camp.
Two trucks are on duty at the camp at all times. They make trips to and from town whenever their services are required. A nurse is on duty constantly but patients have been comparatively few. One baby was slightly ill; two women suffered from shock and a few other persons were treated for minor ailments.
Drafted To Help
Men from the transient camp, drafted as kitchen helpers, laborers, guards and for other tasks, have worked hours on end, many of the men far from suitably clothed.
Milk has been donated to the camp by numerous dairies of the Helena vicinity as there is full realization of the number of babies at the camp. Laundry is done by a man who volunteered to do all of it for no charge at all.
Just below the general camp are the tents being used to house many of the administrative staff members from Fort Harrison. There, too, quiet prevails. Another group of tents has been erected on the fort grounds proper to care for those employees driven from their homes by the quake.
Everything is calm and orderly as the stricken people make the best of a bad situation.
No one whines, no one makes a disturbance; all help whenever possible. Chiefly they talk about the quake and swap experiences.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]

Frank C. Walker Will Take Matter Up With Agency

Miles Romney, state director of the national emergency council, yesterday stated that he was certain the federal government will take over the rehabilitation of Helena's shattered schools, the new high school and the Bryant grade school.
He was convinced of this, he said, after he had been assured by Frank C. Walker, executive director of the national emergency council, that he would confer with government officials to effect final arrangements yesterday.
Mr. Walker was scheduled to meet yesterday with Assistant Administrator Aubrey Williams who today will confer with Administrator Harry Hopkins and Harold Ickes, secretary of the interior, and urge that the PWA speedily cooperate with Helena in the city's great rehabilitation problems.
It was pointed out by Mr. Romney that the new high school building was constructed under the old loan and grant ratio of 30-70 per cent. Later PWA loans were made on a 45-55 per cent loan and grant basis. Thus if an amended application is approved by the PWA officials this school district would be entitled to 15 per cent more of the original sum as a further grant.
This additional 15 per cent, according to Mr. Walker, would be ample to use in starting repair work.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]


Bozeman, Oct. 23--The law providing state insurance on all public buildings contains no earthquake coverage, but it is through no fault of State Representative E. A. Peterson of Bozeman, who sought vigorously to have the much-disputed bill amended to cover that hazard, when the bill was before the house of the last legislature.
"We'll never have another earthquake," they shouted at him when he moved the amendment. With grim memories of damage wrought in Gallatin county by the earthquake of 1925 Mr. Peterson stuck by his guns, but drew considerable jest and raillery for the attempt.
The motion to amend was defeated and Lewis and Clark county, at least, must now wish it had passed.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]

Editors Of Montana Have Comment On Quake

Sympathy and regret for the blow suffered by Helena in the earthquake was mingled with praise of the spirit shown by the residents of the city in the editorial comment of the papers of Montana during the last few days. Unanimously they asserted that the city will rebuild with new strength and carry on without halt.
Some of the comment follows:
The Missoulian, Missoula, under the title, "rebuilding the capital," said:
"Helena will overcome what has happened and with the aid of the federal government and other agencies the visible effects of what happened Friday night will be removed at an early date."
The Leader, Great Falls
"The people of Great Falls deeply sympathize with those of the Capital city which has borne the brunt of the most damaging series of earthquake shocks in the history of Montana."
The Democrat-News Lewistown
"All of the people of Montana will, of course, readily respond to any appeal for help made in behalf of their stricken capital and it people. Helena must be entirely restored and if its own resources are not sufficient for that purpose, other communities must join hands to see that the necessary work is speedily and adequately done. Such occurrences serve to remind us of how puny are the works of man when compared to the mighty forces of an unleased nature."
The Tribune, Great Falls
"Certainly the city of Helena has frankly and honestly given out full and accurate details of the various quakes which visited them. The press agencies there have not tried to hide the facts from the world. That is a commendable attitude and it is all the more unfortunate then that wild rumor and gross exaggeration have pictured many phases of the disaster as worse than they were. € € € The radio over the country has been largely responsible for some most unnecessary anxiety on that score."
The Enterprise, Livingston
"Sympathy flows from Livingston to the people of Helena who have suffered in the recent series of quakes. € € € Those who saw the results of the devastating quakes returned to impress neighbors with the fact the press reports did not exaggerate the losses in any sense."
The Inter Lake, Kalispell
" € € € It gave Montana the unenviable reputation of being in the quake zone. It is a misfortune to the Capital city but it will not be a permanent injury. Helena, like San Francisco and Los Angeles, will be rebuilt and with structures which will withstand earthquake shocks."
Butte Daily Post
The Post, Butte, under the caption, "Helena's Sun Reappears" said, in part: "The Capital city will recover; it will remove the scars and rebuild more magnificently and enduringly than ever before. And in the midst of it all there will shine that fine old Montana spirit which knows not defeat, looks to the heights and carries on."
Bozeman Chronicle
The Chronicle, Bozeman, referring to the quake as a "state calamity," said:
"The spirit with which Helena is facing the future is typical of the old days in Montana when the present site of the capital was Last Chance gulch. € € € Helena, instead of being destroyed, is on the threshold of becoming a bigger and better city."
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]


Deprived of all forms of transportation by the refusal of Mayor C. J. Bausch to furnish it for his office, City Engineer Oscar Baarson, ex officio building inspector, yesterday afternoon appealed to the public for help.
"I need several cars, with drivers who are acquainted with the city, to transport the engineers we expect to arrive here today to do inspection work," Mr. Baarson told The Independent.
The cars must be donated, Mr. Baarson pointed out, because no city funds to pay for such transportation will be granted. He expressed hope that the public would respond to his appeal, so that the work of inspection might be facilitated.
The handicaps under which the building inspector is operating in this emergency because of lack of support by Mayor Bausch are grave. If Mr. Baarson had assistants and transportation, he could accomplish much more.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]


Helena is not asking for charity from the people of the state or from the generous of other states, but justice at the hands of the federal government.
This city is entitled to funds from the many millions appropriated for public works and housing; we are entitled to federal aid for rebuilding such structures as the Lewis and Clark county hospital, the high school, Bryant school and other public buildings.
This city is entitled to federal funds to rebuild and repair homes, loans or outright gifts. If loans the terms must be generous, the interest must be low, the repayments in small installments covering a long term of years.
The people of Helena are widely credited with having a high courage and have met disasters in the past independently. Surely, the sons of the men who built this city and state have the old blood still in their veins and will not desert the community in an hour when manly fortitude is needed.
The most necessary thing is prompt action. Any day may see the weather change from a bright, warm fall to a severe winter; soon a blizzard may sweep down from the north, which would cause widespread suffering. Every bright day is precious time; every hour of moderate temperature is needed.
It is nothing short of criminal for public officials to neglect their duties; it is worst than criminal for them to delay, hinder and quarrel over who shall do the work, who shall have the honors, who shall select the workmen.
There is no honor today for anyone who fails to cooperate with the people in distress, with the federal authorities and Red Cross workers. Dishonor and disgrace await those who seek to play petty politics when women and children suffer in the cold nights, their vitality weakened by fear.
Let us take hold like the men and women of old; like those pioneers who lived through the winters when we were very young. If public officials refuse to help, the citizens will throw them out of office and replace them with men who have cool courage and who think straight.
We repeat, the people of this community do not want charity but justice; we are entitled to the tax dollars which we are paying into the federal government; taxes which the rich and poor are paying every day on most everything we eat, wear or use in the ordinary walks of life. This assistance we demand as a community and demand it NOW.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]


Frequency of earth tremors in Helena was decidedly lessened between 1:30 o'clock yesterday afternoon and midnight, it was reported at the Helena weather bureau.
Four hours and 36 minutes elapsed before another one was recorded at 6:06 o'clock last night. Then four came in an hour and four minutes, up to 7:15 o'clock.
From 7:15 until midnight there were none recorded at the weather bureau, although a man on Ewing street called the office and said that there was a slight one at 11:45. This will not be used in the record unless it was felt by at least one other person, the weather bureau said.
There was a sharp tremor at 10:56 o'clock yesterday morning, with a duration of about two seconds, and only six recorded over the period of 13 hours and four minutes following, which terminated at midnight.
The tremor at 7:15 o'clock last evening was the 390th, including the major disturbance last Friday. Since October 12 the score now stands at exactly 450, according to the weather bureau recordings.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]

* * * * * * * * *

"Earthquake Shudder" Is New Highball

Helena bartenders have concocted a new drink, "The Earthquake Shudder," and according to W. O. Whipps, secretary of the Montana Highway commission, it works with surprising effect.
Mr. Whipps and a party of friends were driving around the city Sunday evening when a series of tremors occurred. The party decided a little nerve tonic would help.
They drove into a roadhouse north of the city and ordered whisky straight. The bartender served up four drinks and as many chasers. The whiskies were tossed off and the chasers followed.
The four in the party shuddered, shook their heads, braced their feet, gritted their teeth and for a full minute were silent. Then peaceful smiles came over their faces.
The chasers had been straight gin!
So the "Earthquake Shudder" came into being.
[Helena Independent; October 24, 1935]

Is Solution
Matter Again Will Be Brought Before Council

A movement is under way in Helena for the creation of a housing authority, as authorized by the last legislature, and if a commission is appointed by Mayor C. J. Bausch, many believe that one of the gravest problems facing the city as the result of the earthquake, that of providing homes for the needy, would be solved.
With severe weather likely to arrive at any time, an acute housing problem is facing the city. Several hundred homes have been so badly damaged that extensive repairs will have to be made. A large number will have to be almost entirely rebuilt.
Many Homes Needed
The persons who live in these homes will require quarters which will give them protection in severe weather, or much suffering and distress will ensue. Even before the quake, Helena was far under-built and the need of additional housing was glaringly apparent.
Destruction caused by the earthquake has greatly accentuated this serious problem, and it is conservatively estimated that more than 100 new homes are needed immediately to take care of the present situation. When the number of homes that must be rebuilt is determined, it is pointed out that it may take 200 or more new dwellings to meet the requirements.
Amos M. Shellady, commissioner of safety, said last night that he would present the matter again to the council in the hope that favorable action might be obtained. The city council is scheduled to hold a special meeting this morning in the water department office and Commissioner Shellady said he would bring the important matter before the council for consideration.
By Committee
The housing authority question has also been discussed informally among members of the emergency reconstruction committee, of which S. V. Stewart, associate justice of the supreme court, is chairman, and it will be considered officially by that body at the first opportunity. The committee may ask the city council under its emergency resolution to take such action.
Under the act adopted by the last legislature municipalities were given easy access to government funds for slum clearance and housing projects. The mayor is authorized to appoint a housing authority commission, which in turn receives a charter from the secretary of state. The Housing authority acting in the capacity of a municipal corporation then files application with the PWA. If the project is approved the authority uses the loan and grant from the government for the construction of new homes and apartments, which it rents at reasonable rates or sells on easy contracts to reputable persons.
Up Before
Sensing that with cold weather approaching and many families shelterless there will be an acute housing problem in Helena, the need of such an authority seems paramount to many at this time. Although the matter was before the council on several occasions in the past the mayor has heretofore strongly opposed its creation.
Commissioner Shellady said last night that it was his opinion that the ban on public gatherings would be lifted some time the first of next week. Many of the churches now are being inspected by the city engineer's crew and this work is expected to be finished by Saturday. Two church buildings have been declared ready for occupancy, the St. Helena cathedral and the Presbyterian church.
Need Labor
Some difficulty was encountered yesterday in obtaining relief labor as contemplated under the new city FERA project but Commissioner Shellady said he had been assured that a crew would be available today to continue the work of removing hazardous properties, removing chimneys, and hauling away debris.
Although FERA officials were given authority to furnish transient and relief labor to the city for such purposes, but two men were obtained yesterday and the work was curtailed. Commissioner Shellady said that the relief laborers were either out of the city or were working on their other jobs.
Without labor to conduct the project, rebuilding and repair work went ahead in Helena nevertheless yesterday and there was a healthy atmosphere in the city as its residents proceeded with the task individually, healing the scars of last Friday's quake.
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]

For Safety
New Building Code To Require Quake Resistance

While inspection of damaged buildings and plans for reconstruction were being rushed with all possible speed yesterday, a special committee of experts was preparing a new "earthquake" building ordinance for presentation to the city council this morning.
The committee was named yesterday morning by City Engineer Oscar Baarson and its members labored on the ordinance all day and until far into the night. A joint meeting was held with the city board of examiners and appeals, who supervised the building code, at 8:30 o'clock last night at the Placer hotel and all the important provisions of the new ordinance were discussed.
Leading Engineers
Members of the committee which prepared the ordnance are: Harry D. Lovering, of Lovering Longbotham company of St. Paul, chairman: Sigvald L. Berg, supervising architect for the Federal Housing administration in Montana, and a former prominent Berkeley, Cal., architect; Professor E. R. Dye, head of the structural engineering department at Montana State college; A. L. Strong, representative of the Portland Cement association; A. J. Cook, city engineer of Great Falls; Mr. Cortez, city engineer of Livingston; W. H. Swearingen, designing and maintenance engineer for the state university at Missoula; G. E. Osterberg chief designing engineer for the A. C. M. at Butte; Charles Forbis, architect, Missoula; Gus Forseen, Missoula contractor; Professor E. Thorkelsen of the mechanical engineering department at Montana State college; W. M. McClean, construction engineer, Helena; Floyd Hamill, city engineer of Butte, and H. E. Engle of the Board of Fire Underwriters, San Francisco.
After California
These men outlined the specifications for the construction of earthquake resistant buildings in Helena in the future. The new ordinance is modeled after those adopted in the earthquake centers of California.
Mayor C. J. Bausch will be requested to call a special session of the city council this morning when the ordinance is completed. The council will be asked to adopt it as an emergency measure, making it effective immediately on final passage. No building permits will be issued until the ordinance has been finally approved and passed, the city engineer announced.
The new regulations will apply particularly the brick walls and chimneys, Mr. Baarson said. In the future, chimneys of brick must be reinforced with iron rods. In formulating the provisions of the ordinance, the committee will have the advice of several structural engineers with wide experience in the earthquake areas of California.
In the meantime, Mr. Baarson stressed, property owners who intend to repair or rebuild should inform themselves as fully as possible regarding earthquake resistant construction before proceeding. There is no common sense in rebuilding a brick wall or a chimney if it is done in the old way and the next earth shock will tumble it down.
Cement Needed
In relation to rebuilding of chimneys, Mr. Baarson pointed out that pure lime mortar will not do. Portland cement should form a good proportion of the mixture that ties the bricks together, he said, and details as to the proportions can be obtained at places where the cement is sold.
Furthermore, Mr. Baarson advocates rehabilitating chimneys temporarily by raising the brickwork about a foot above the roof and attaching a galvanized iron top thereto. This method will better resist earthquakes, and later the chimneys can be carried on up under an approved shock-resisting type of construction.
With nearly 15 outside engineers and construction experts available yesterday, in response to the appeal of Mr. Baarson and the efforts of the Helena Emergency Reconstruction committee, composed of leading business men and executives of the city, inspection of damaged buildings went ahead rapidly. It will continue at even a faster rate today.
Start Work
Yesterday morning, the engineers met in a group and listened to technical talks on specific points to observe in inspection work of this kind. These talks were given by experts in specialized construction. Thereafter, the entire group went to the Gans and Klein building and the Marlow theater, where the points were demonstrated. Following that, the engineers were divided into groups of two and sent out on regular inspections.
All will submit reports and recommendations to Mr. Baarson. In event a certificate of occupancy does not follow, another group will make a re-examination of the building in question.
Private homes, Mr. Baarson said, will be inspected as soon as possible, but inspection of larger structures housing numbers of people should come first, he emphasized. Five government engineers are expected to arrive here soon, and others in private or public business are also expected to donate their services.
Results of all inspections will be filed in Mr. Baarson's office, where they will be available to owners of the property. Eventually, Mr. Baarson added, every structure in the city will undergo careful inspection. All this will be done as rapidly as possible.
Baarson Commended
A report on the situation up to Thursday morning was given by City Engineer Baarson at a meeting of the Emergency Reconstruction committee yesterday morning at the Placer hotel. At the conclusion he received the earnest commendation of that group for his splendid work under severe handicaps.
"We think, Mr. Baarson, that you have done mighty good work in the last 24 hours," commended former Gov. Sam V. Stewart, chairman of the reconstruction committee. Later Mr. Stewart added that "it seems to me Mr. Baarson is hitting the ball just 100 per cent."
The city engineer also told the committee that the city council, at a meeting last night with F. H. Marvin, state director of the ERA, had appointed Councilman Noble P. Evans to have charge of the razing, with ERA relief labor, of dangerous walls and chimneys throughout the city.
When the question of inspecting private homes was brought up, T. O. Hammond of the First National Bank and Trust company suggested that it could wait until the larger buildings had been disposed of.
Are Cautions
"It is my impression," Mr. Hammond said, "that home owners are over-cautious rather than undercautious. In other words, they are carefully looking after their own safety and doing a pretty good job of it."
It was also brought out that the Montana Power company's gas department is "doing a fine job" of inspecting gas installations and chimneys. It was reported that the company has 30 or 35 inspectors at work, some of them brought here from other communities.
In relation to financing the expenses of engineers who are here from outside and donating their services to earth-stricken Helena, the committee went on record as in favor of raising money for that purpose. No city funds, it was explained, are available, so the work must be done privately.
Chairman Stewart appointed a committee, composed of Hugh R. Adair, Mr. Baarson and C. V. Wilson, to look after the matter. He suggested that while no inspection fee is charged, owners of building inspected might feel impelled to donate to the fund for meeting the expenses of outside engineers.
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]

Expenditures So Far Chiefly For Food, Says Transue

About 100 registrations have been made at the Red Cross headquarters here by heads of families representing in the neighborhood of 400 people, E. S. Transue of Denver, disaster relief representative for the national organization, said yesterday.
During the two-day period that the office has been open here, expenditures have been chiefly for food and medical care, Transue said. The orders for groceries have been occasioned by people who have not yet found their bearings, a few of whom have lost their jobs, he stated.
Get Medical Care
Medical care was provided for two people yesterday. Transue said that hospitalization was not required, but that many unfortunate people have suffered from earthquake shock or injuries.
As the survey is being made of property losses, people without means are being referred to the Red Cross offices, said the national representative. Yesterday the organization was fully settled in its new quarters in the basement of the old National Bank of Montana building.
Mr. Transue said that the home rebuilding program should be well under way by the first of next week, and he hopes that by next Wednesday that the Red cross will be ready to make awards for the construction of houses.
Houses do not necessarily have to be reconstructed on the places where they fell, he said and people may use their own judgment as to the kind of materials they want.
It is just another case of "meeting the individual need," which characterizes Red Cross work, he asserted.
Local Group
Actual awards for construction are finally approved by a local committee of five persons, said Transue. The Red Cross merely makes recommendations, giving the history of a case by number, and the amount allowed an applicant is determined by the committee.
He emphasized the fact that the Red Cross is principally concerned with "families who cannot meet their own needs."
Until the trained workers arrive, all in need of help are urged to call at headquarters. Transue expects that one of the workers will get here today, two more tomorrow, and still another on Monday.
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]


Banks of Helena have rallied to the aid of the unfortunate home owner who finds himself confronted with the necessity of making expensive repairs to his property by reason of damage sustained in the earth shocks of the past week, and have announced that they will provide means of financing repairs or reasonable construction to all persons who can qualify as to credit standing under the modernization credit plan of the Federal Housing administration.
Hundreds of homes, business and industrial structures in the Capital city are in need of repairs or partial reconstruction, and in many instances the owner is not possessed of immediate funds sufficient to meet this expense. The means of financing such expenditures has been provided by the Federal Housing administration, which does not itself furnish the money but will insure banks and other lending agencies to the extent of a goodly percentage of the loan, believed ample to protect them against any loss which might be sustained.
More Consideration
Earthquake damaged properties come into the picture upon the same basis as loans have heretofore been made for modernization of structures, and quake sufferers will be given even more consideration by the lending agencies than would have been extended the ordinary borrower who merely desired to improve his property.
While loans for the repair or reconstruction of dwellings and other small structures will be insured by the FHA up to $2,000 on any one piece of property, the maximum limit for which insurance will be granted upon business or industrial structures, hotels, apartment houses, hospitals, schools, colleges and churches has been fixed at $50,000. The major requirements of the FHA are that the borrower shall be a credit risk acceptable to the banking institution and that the loan be repaid in monthly installments extending over a period not exceeding five years at a cost not in excess of the maximum interest rate fixed by the FHA.
Staff Called In
The Federal Housing administration has been greatly pleased at the willingness of the Helena banks to extend their facilities in the relief of the property owners of the city through means of FHA insured loans and the state director, Barclay Craighead, has called in all members of his field staff to assist the banks and the prospective borrowers in completing the details of the negotiations leading up to the granting of loans.
It is recognized that it will not pay to rebuild many of the structures that have been badly damaged by the recent series of quakes and that in those instances complete new construction will be required. It is here that the FHA mutual insured mortgage loan is best adapted, as it gives the borrower the advantage of a long-time loan, bearing a low rate of interest and payable upon the monthly installment plan.
Material aid to new construction projects has been extended by the Reconstruction Finance corporation through the medium of the RFC Mortgage company, which has been set up to take care of the existing emergency. S. A. Bingham, manager of the Helena office of the RFC Thursday mailed to each bank, building and loan association and the Montana Life Insurance company, a letter advising them that the mortgage company would purchase from them, without a moment's delay, all FHA insured mortgages taken by them for the purpose of financing new home construction.
Few Limitations
Under this plan the RFC Mortgage company will purchase mortgages given for this purpose, under only those limitations imposed by the Housing administration, which includes loans for sums up to 80 per cent of the appraised value of the mortgaged property and with maturity dates not in excess of 20 years. Under the FHA plan loans will be restricted to a maximum of maturity date, which may be 20 years after the date of its issuance.
Mr. Craighead cites as an example of the distribution of costs the figures of an average loan of $5,000 amortized over a period of 20 years. This would entail a monthly payment of $48.53, probably no more than the rental cost of such a residence, made up of the following items: Principal and interest $33, mortgage insurance fee $2.08, taxes $10.42, fire insurance premium 97 cents, service charge $2.06.
With the great degree of liquidity offered to banks, building and loan associations and other lending agencies by the RFC Mortgage company it is the confident belief of Mr. Craighead that the construction of homes in Helena and other cities of the state will be given a great impetus.
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]


Up to midnight last night there had been only two tremors recorded at the Helena weather bureau over a period of 15 hours, the fewest that there have been over such a long time in a week.
There were nine felt in the 24-hour period that ended at midnight. One at 4:33 yesterday afternoon was quite noticeable, as was the one at 11:25 last night, the latter described as a jolt followed by a rumbling sound.
A period of seven hours and 31 minutes elapsed between the disturbance felt yesterday morning and 4:33 yesterday afternoon.
At midnight last night the shock count stood at 464 since October 12, and 404 since and including the major earthquake a week ago today.
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]


City Engineer Oscar Baarson announced Thursday that the building of The Independent was among the first inspected by his office, both Mr. Baarson and Architect Berg; in fact, The Independent holds "Certificate of Occupancy" No. 2, dated Monday, October 21. State Fire Marshal Arthur Parsons also looked over the building. The owner of the building, George G. E. Neill, also had his own contractors look over the building and placed one upright 8x8 under the floor in a place where heavy machinery stands on the floor above.
While the building occupied by The Independent is an old one, it was built in the days of honest architecture, when craftsmen took a pride in their work, and as a result of this construction, not a brick, nor piece of stone was knocked from the building. Loose rocks from part of a wall, the remains of an old liquor warehouse, north of the building, fell off as they have been doing for a number of years since the late George Hansen, proprietor of "The Old Stand," had the building torn down.
The Independent building has a wide cornice of terra cotta on the front of the building. Not a piece of this cornice was disturbed. The building has been gone over in every detail and there is no sign whatever of damage of any kind.
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]


The huge opening in the earth about a mile this side of Wolf Creek was caused by a land slide, started about two years ago, and not by the earthquake last Friday night, officials of the maintenance department of the highway commission have announced. It is possible, however, that the quake aggravated the situation.
The following statement was issued in regard to the huge opening:
"While there is evidence of recent mild activity over the whole slide area, we are convinced that there are no new crevices which might have been induced by the recent earthquake in the Helena region.
"The only new condition at the slide occurred in two small areas where there was unmistakable evidence of overthrusting which appeared to affect some one to three feet of the surface. This we interpreted as indicating that some blocks of the slide had encountered subsurface resistance, probably a reef of bedrock in place, which made this particular block more difficult to move than the surrounding yardage.
"Through the canyon no rock of any size had been displaced from the cliffs, and we doubt if in more than one spot had any crevices been materially opened by this earthquake condition. The riding surface of our highways suffered no damage whatever."
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]


Missoula, Oct. 24--Rumors are foundless that the new student union building on the State university campus was damaged by the earthquake last Friday night, according to M. L. Kingsley, resident engineer. Immediately following the shocks he went through the building inspecting it thoroughly without finding any indication of damage.
Installation of furniture and equipment is going forward without delay. Seats have been installed in the auditorium with but one carload being needed to finish the work. Five pianos have been installed in various parts of the building. Each ballroom has a piano as does the orchestra pit and the stage. Rugs, lamps and soda fountain equipment are being placed.
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]


Lethbridge, Alta., Oct. 24--Lethbridge and southern Alberta felt tremors that shook Helena, carrying death and property damage to that city. There were no losses reported but large buildings in the city shivered and dishes rattled. The tremors recurred Oct. 21 but were not so pronounced. In the Y.M.C.A. dormitory men rushed out of their rooms as the large brick building shook. This is the second time southern Alberta has been shaken, along with Montana.
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]


One of the best quake experiences yet is told by Art Sampson, waiter at the Weiss cafe. Saturday morning about 5:30 o'clock, after he had somewhat recovered from the shock, Sampson went home and turned on his radio to see if he could pick up any reports on the disaster.
After a few minutes, there came a knock at his door and an irritated voice said, "Say, would you mind turning off that thing and let a fellow sleep?"
"Brother, if you can sleep at a time like this, that's good enough for me," Sampson replied, and off went the radio.

A good example of how some of the weird tales get started:
A certain woman entered the telephone booth in the Harvey hotel lobby (note that fact) and placed a long distance call to some friends or relatives in Great Falls. After giving them a rather lurid description of what had happened, she said, "And there is not a single hotel in Helena left standing!" The remark was overheard by several persons in the lobby and was not at all well taken.

Postmaster Harry Hendricks sat anxiously in his office yesterday afternoon at 2 o'clock. No one came in. It was the date for opening the bids for a long list of repairs to the old assay office on Broadway and Warren street. Not a single bid was submitted by a contractor. On next Tuesday bids will be opened for erecting a wrought iron rail on the post office steps. Postmaster Hendricks is hopeful that he will have at least one bidder.

Oh, no. Letha O'Neill, the new stenographer at the post office, does not get excited when an earth tremor rolls through the city. While boasting of her calmness a day or two ago before postal employees, one of the temblors passed through the city. Letha swallowed her chewing gum and had to open a brand new package.

If someone would just come along and throw him a thermos bottle full of coffee and a couple of sinkers, Carl W. Carlson of 335 North Rodney street could have breakfast like a millionaire. Instead of leaving his paper on the porch of his apartment, it is tossed through an opening on the second floor where once there was a wall.

So violently did the store teeth of an employee at the state capitol chatter during the big earthquake Friday night, that his plates were broken. It appears that dentists will have some rebuilding to do in Helena as well as brick masons and plasterers.

J. E. Norris, secretary of the state organization of the Montana Society of Pioneers, said yesterday that any oldtimers who are in need should get in touch with him. The society, he said, has funds to help its members during an emergency such as the one in Helena.

While Mrs. A. T. Hibbard and Mrs. Fred Sheriff were driving on the airport road yesterday they spied an energetic news photographer of the "scoop" type from outside the city snapping a picture of the old abandoned Carey school house near the highway. Building was started years ago, was never completed, and for several years has looked like the last rose of summer, worse than any earthquake wreck in the city. "Scoop" might also take a picture of the Parchen house and the Conrad house for his paper. The latter is especially good because it is leveled.

Another popular sport among the outside news photographers is getting the people at Camp Cooney to leave their shelter and stand around small camp fires, shivering and nibbling on a crust of dry bread. Some pictures of the big fire in 1928 might be dug up to add to the sensationalism of the earthquake story for outside consumption.
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]


Sam D. Goza, member of the state board of equalization and state beer board, told yesterday of his hectic trip home from Oklahoma City, where he was attending the 28th annual national conference on taxation, after the big earthquake here last Friday night.
Mr. Goza left Oklahoma City Saturday morning, and was in fear of his family's safety when he purchased a newspaper in Kansas City and read that the town was in ruins.
He called his home by long distance when he arrived in Denver, and his wife greated him by saying "Hello, Lucky."
The tension was somewhat relieved when he found that his folks were all right, but he was made uneasy again when he had dinner with W. E. Lowell, former Associated Press correspondent in Helena, and heard stories of the great disaster.
He tried to telephone his home again but could get nobody. Then he telephoned the home of Judge J. J. Greene, fellow member of the two boards, and talked to the Judge's son, who informed him that the city's residents were departing in great numbers. That information added to his worries until he later heard that the situation had been less disastrous than reported.
It was only when he reached home that he really felt relieved and was able to appraise the situation.
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]


People who were made homeless by the earthquakes, and who would like a good hot bath are invited to come to the Y.M.C.A. and use the shower room there, it was announced yesterday by B. V. Edworthy, secretary.
This invitation is extended to boys, girls, men and women, and there is no charge for the baths, but those who take them are asked to furnish their own towels.
The "Y" has also offered office space to the corps of engineers who are coming here from adjoining cities and from Fort Peck to take part in the building survey.
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]

* * * * * * * * *
Larry Heller Tired Of These Rumors

Almanac-stricken Helena residents who have feasted on a current rumor that Helena is going to have another bigger and better quake tonight don't want to be on that, do they?
Larry B. Heller of 515 Eighth avenue, a clerk for the Montana Relief commission and a prominent young man of the city, is tired of hearing of the rumor and is willing to take as many wagers as his meagre purse will allow.
"These wild rumors have gone far enough but I have a little money that isn't a rumor. If any almanac-eaten and quake-foretelling resident of this bailiwick wants to 'lay it on the line,' I will be ready to take it," the young FERA clerk said.
His bet is that there will not be a quake tonight as severe as last Friday night as some Helena "rumorists" allege the almanac states.
[Helena Independent; October 25, 1935]

Work Rushed
Activity Is Seen In All Sections Of The Community

With a renewed spirit of confidence and optimism for the future, Helena yesterday bent seriously to the task of rehabilitation and scores of men were engaged in the work of removing the ugly scars left by the devastating earth shock just a week ago.
Reconstruction activities were proceeding at full blast in all parts of the city and there was difficulty in obtaining laborers and skilled craftsmen to meet the demand.
The city was much calmer, after 24 hours comparatively free from earth disturbances, and nerves badly frayed by days of intermittent rocking and rumbling had begun to quiet down but people were still wary, remembering that the big shake came just a week after the first severe one on October 12.
This feeling was not helped by reports, which have run wild through the city that an almanac had predicted the two previous major quakes and further predicted a more serious shock for last night.
Widespread inquiry failed to uncover one of the almanacs and no one could be found who had actually read the dire predictions, but many persons took the rumors to heart and drove out of town for the night. Others watched their clocks apprehensively as the zero hour approached.
Feelings were considerably relieved when midnight passed and nothing happened. Only four or five distinct tremors were recorded yesterday for the lightest earth activity in two weeks and most residents of the city were coming to the belief that shaking was about over.
No Delay
In the meantime, the wariness of the citizenry did not prevent it from getting work under way with all possible dispatch. Damaged chimneys were being torn down and rebuilt, walls were repaired, weak points bolstered up and in a number of instances reconstruction of buildings was actually started.
Street Commissioner Noble Evans had several crews of men at work carting away debris and removing hazards. Two or three private dwellings, so badly damaged that they must be rebuilt, were pulled down by his crews at the owners' request. In this connection, Evans urged that persons making similar requests arrange to have any plumbing fixtures and other property they wish to save removed before demolition is started.
Inspection of buildings to determine the extent of damage and state of safety was gaining momentum as a staff of nearly 20 engineers working out of City Oscar Baarson's office swung into action. Twenty-nine certificates of occupancy had been issued last night and it was expected that many more would be granted today.
Ban Is Lifted
Amos M. Shellady, commissioner of public safety, yesterday noon lifted the ban against public meetings to the extent that gathering may be held in buildings that have been properly inspected and granted certificates of occupancy.
All of the churches have been inspected, it was stated, yesterday and certificates have been, or will be issued today to all but two, the First Lutheran and St. Paul's Methodist. Repairs will be required at the latter two before certificates are issued, and arrangements were being made to hold their services Sunday elsewhere.
Offers of assistance continued to come from neighboring communities and State Senator Frank Buttleman of Bozeman dropped in to assure the Capital City that Gallatin county would do anything in its power. The county remembers with deep appreciation the aid contributed by Helena in the quake that damaged that section severely in 1925.
Send Beds
As army convoy from Fort Missoula arrived last night about 11 o'clock with 200 blankets, 100 cots and 100 mattresses which were placed at the disposal of the Salvation Army. From Anaconda's mayor, Frank Provost, came the offer to "call upon us for any assistance you think we may be able to give."
The tapering off process was in line, seemingly, with the forecast of scientists both here and on the west coast. The quake total was 475 since October 12th.
Reconstruction and demolition went on hand-in-hand today despite the oft repeated and jittery rumors and by nightfall the American Red Cross field headquarters had the application of 125 distressed for assistance, and expected 200 before Saturday night.
Schools were not to resume for at least another week but Supt. R. O. Evans announced that a portion of the $500,000 high school, the north wing of which was demolished, would be put in use and that pupils of other destroyed buildings would be cared for. He said the high school might not resume for weeks.
Masonic Home
Engineers today found that the Masonic Home in the Helena valley was damaged to the extent of $4,000 to $5,000 and that the new front wall probably would have to come down. There were no casualties there and the occupants were taking the situation with a smile.
The national re-employment service reiterated that brick masons and other skilled laborers should refrain from coming to Helena until they are called. The service had placed 15 men but had no shortage of manpower at that time.
Union bricklayers, it was announced, had not decided whether they would work on a six-day basis in view of the apparent shortage in this trade. They expected to make their decision later.
The injured, still hospitalized, were reported improving and there had been no further casualties except later cases of shock most of which were privately treated and were not of a major character.
[Helena Independent; October 26, 1935]

By Engineers
Awaits City Council Gathering For Approval

Helena's city council will be called upon to take action on a proposed ordinance requiring earthquake resistant construction, according to the latest approved methods, in the erection, enlargement, alteration and repair of all buildings having masonry construction.
The proposed ordinance was drafted at a meeting of engineers, architects and others Thursday night and was to have been presented to the council yesterday. Because of the press of departmental affairs, the council did not hold a session as per schedule and the ordinance was passed over. It will be presented, however, at the first opportunity, either today or Monday.
After Long Beach
Patterned after the Long Beach, Calif., emergency building ordinance adopted after the disastrous earthquake there in 1933, it has been revised and altered to suit this locality, climatic conditions and methods of construction. "The types of construction required are the nearest approach to earthquake resistance available anywhere in the world today," Sigvald L. Berg, supervising architect for the federal housing administration, said.
Sponsors of the proposed project were on hand yesterday to present it to the council but other matters kept the councilmen away. Mr. Berg said that the ordinance, being patterned after the Long Beach regulations, represented study by experienced engineers, and was proving of great benefit in California.
The principal provisions of the ordinance follow:
All mortar for all types of masonry including exterior clay tile partions shall be cement mortar composed of one part Portland cement and three parts sand by volume with an allowable addition of lime, putty or hydrated lime not to exceed 50 per cent by volume of the cement content.
All masonry units shall be laid with full shoved mortar joints with all head, bed and wall joints solidly filled with mortar.
All brick work shall be laid with full header courses bonded through walls not more than every fifth course in height.
All masonry veneer and facing shall be full bonded, except that masonry veneer or facing may be applied in front of steel or reinforced concrete members or walls when tied or anchored thereto by the equal of nine gauge galvanized iron wire spaced 12 inches on centers vertically and 16 inches on centers horizontally.
No used or secondhand masonry units shall be used unless they are sound and at least 90 per cent whole, and have been thoroughly cleaned of all adhering matter.
Tied In
All new masonry shall be definitely tied into old or existing masonry by means of reinforced concrete, steel or other means which will be adequate, in the opinion of the building inspector, to meet the special condition.
All walls or parts of walls which are shattered or in which the bond between the mortar and the bricks is ruptured shall be taken down to a point where the wall is tight and well bonded.
Except on two-family dwellings and private garages, the exterior walls of masonry construction shall be tied vertically and horizontally with reinforced concrete ties.
In lieu of concrete ties and belt courses, structural steel ties may be used when approved by the building inspector.
Lintels over openings more than 10 feet in width which are of structural steel shall be encased over top and sides with concrete or masonry. When the ends of lintels are less than 18 inches apart they shall be effectively tied together.
All masonry parapet walls shall be not more than 36 inches in height above the roof adjacent thereto. A horizontal belt course tie of reinforced concrete shall be placed at the top of all parapet walls.
In rebuilding chimneys they shall be taken down below any point of possible fracture and rebuilt, using the mortar specified herein. In each of the corners of new chimneys plant at least one one-half inch round bar every 18 inches on center of vertical height place a one-quarter inch tie laid in the mortar joint. Where chimneys are built of one thickness of brick with flue lining, the vertical reinforcing bars may be placed between the flue lining and the brick and such space shall be well filed with mortar.
Penalty for violation of any provision of the ordinance would be a fine of not exceeding $500 or by imprisonment in the city jail for not more than six month, or both such fine and imprisonment.
All ordinances and parts of ordinances in conflict would be repealed. The measure would be an emergency one on the ground that it is urgently required for the immediate preservation of public peace, health and safety.
The code bore the names of the following building engineers, contractors, material men and architects, who have viewed the wreckage in Helena and were of one mind in effecting provisions to avoid such future wide-scale losses:
H. D. Lovering, of Lovering and Longbotham, St. Paul, chairman of the emergency building inspection staff; A. B. DeKay, Helena contractor; J. A. Bryson, Helena brick contractor; Floyd Hammill, city engineer of Butte.
C. Raymond, brick contractor; Normal B. DeKay, architect; John H. Morrison, A. Lyall House, Gust Forseen, Missoula contractors; C. J. Forbis, Missoula architect; W. H. Swearingen, designing and maintenance engineer for the state university at Missoula.
Prof. E. R. Dye, head of the structural engineering department at Montana State college; A. G. Osterberg, chief designing engineer for the A. C. M. at Butte.
A. L. Strong, representative of the Portland Cement association; Sivald L. Berg, supervising architect for the FHA; Roscoe Hugenin, Butte architect, and Ray Bray, brick manufacturer.
[Helena Independent; October 26, 1935]


Several vital matters in connection with the Helena earthquake will be presented and discussed at the regular weekly meeting of the city council next Monday morning, including an earthquake resistant building ordinance, a supplemental emergency ordinance specifying amounts to be expended by the various municipal departments, a proposal for the construction of a new city hall, and a request for the appointment of a housing authority commission.
The ordinance prepared Thursday night at a meeting of structural engineers, architects and others of the office of Oscar Baarson, city engineer and ex officio building inspector, is patterned after the Long Beach, Calif., ordinance, but has been revised to meet Helena's individual needs, embodying the latest types of quake-resistant construction known to experts.
Take or Leave It
Sigvald Berg, supervising architect for the federal housing administration in Montana, will present the ordinance to the city council. "They can take it for leave it," Mr. Berg said. He added that he was not going to take part in any political or factional controversy. The ordinance was not prepared by outsiders but was drafted after the Long Beach ordinance and then adapted to this climate and local construction methods.
Most of the engineers who came from outside points to help Helena in its great disaster have left the city. At Thursday night's meeting, it is said, Mayor C. J. Bausch indicated he was opposed to outsiders "coming in and telling Helena people what to do," and made other remarks that caused them to feel they were not wanted. However, the majority of the engineers stuck through it until most of the major buildings were inspected.
Need Funds
It will be necessary for the council to pass a supplemental emergency ordinance so that the amounts each department may expend will be set forth. Neither the mayor nor Councilman Noble Evans, have had to spend any to date, it is understood, but Commissioner Amos M. Shellady, taking the reins in his hands for the safety of Helena and its citizens, must find funds to pay the national guard, which was deputized to patrol the business and residential sections, and also to meet the cost of moving the fire and police departments to new quarters when a portion of the city hall collapsed.
While the FERA was to provide relief labor to the city for various work projects, labor was scarce. Finding that Commissioner Evans had utilized what few relief laborers were available to tear down weakened walls, other departments of the city found it necessary to hire labor for their work. What sums the various departments will be authorized to spend to aid Helena in its catastrophe will be set forth in the supplemental emergency resolution.
Commission Shellady said that he would ask the council to back the plan to have a housing authority in the city to aid the many unfortunates facing the winter without adequate shelter. He also will urge the council to submit an application to the government under a loan and grant agreement for the construction of a new city hall.
[Helena Independent; October 27, 1935]

From PWA
Four Army Engineers Reach City From Fort Peck

Helena high school will receive an additional grant of approximately $75,000 from the Public Works administration for repairing its damaged building, Governor Frank H. Cooney was notified last night in a telegram received from Frank Walker, chairman of the federal emergency relief council in Washington.
The action of the PWA was in response to appeals for assistance made by Senator James E. Murray and Governor Cooney. Senator Murray is now in Washington to expedite federal assistance for quake-stricken Helena.
Bryant, Too
While no definite action has been taken as yet by PWA officials, Mr. Walker informed the governor that it was almost certain the government would also supply funds for rebuilding the Bryant school and repairing the damage to other public schools.
In authorizing funds for repairing the damage to the new high school building, the PWA gave Helena school district No. 1 an additional grant of 15 per cent. The high school, a public works project, was built under the original 70 per cent loan and 30 per cent grant plan. When the new appropriation for public works was made by congress last spring, the federal grant was increased to 45 per cent. The bars were raised to permit the high school to benefit by the increased grant.
May Be Less
At first it was estimated that it would cost $150,000 to repair the high school, but after a later inspection it was stated that it might not cost more than $90,000. It was indicated that if the new grant is not sufficient for the purpose it is possible the PWA will provide additional funds. Otherwise, the school district will have to make arrangements to borrow the balance, probably from the RFC.
Again yesterday, "the day was saved" for City Engineer Oscar Baarson by the arrival of four army engineers from Fort Peck, headed by Captain Henry Chorpening. The others are Engineers H. H. Dunhas, A. H. Buckley and G. B. R. Gloyd. They arrived by motor late yesterday afternoon.
Start This A.M.
Reporting to Mayor C. J. Bausch under orders last night, they informed him they had been assigned to duty here for as long as their services are needed. Captain Chorpening told The Independent that additional engineers would be available if required and that he would make a survey first thing this morning with the city officials to determine the amount of inspection work to be done.
Later in the evening, Captain Chorpening wired his headquarters for another engineer and a stenographer-clerk.
This morning, the army men will start an inspection of all the school buildings in the city. When that is finished, they will be assigned to the larger buildings, that have not yet been examined.
Lift Burden
Arrival of the army engineers took a great load off the city engineer who yesterday was without the services of most of the outside engineers, architects and contractors who had responded to the appeal for aid sent out by the Helena emergency construction committee. Most of them left Friday night or Saturday morning. Their departure was occasioned, according to the best information obtainable, by the attitude and remarks of city officials which made them feel they were interlopers and were not wanted.
Before they left, however, they inspected a number of the more important structures and assisted in drawing up the new building ordinance which will require earthquake resistant construction in buildings erected in the future. The city council could not be got together for a meeting yesterday so the new ordinance will not be presented until Monday morning. Mayor C. J. Bausch could not be located for a conference with the army engineers until quite late last night.
Work Praised
Yesterday the staff of engineers assisting City Engineer Baarson was composed of A. G. Osterberg, chief designing engineer for the A. C. M. At Butte; Sigvald Berg of Helena, supervising architect for the federal housing administration in Montana; A. R. Strong, representative of the Portland Cement association; W. M. McClean, Helena, construction engineer; and E. F. Moyle and Maxwell Mason, Helena, architects and engineers of the state highway department.
City Engineer Baarson especially expressed his appreciation of the work done by Moyle and Mason, whose services were voluntarily donated by D. A. McKinnon, chief engineer of the highway commission. They were on the job Saturday morning after the devastating shock and have worked continuously ever since.
Ready To Go
With large sums already made available by the federal government and the American Red Cross for relief and reconstruction, Helena yesterday was prepared to start its tremendous reconstruction program without delay. It will enter its greatest era of building since the boom days when it was transferred almost overnight from a seething gold camp into a city. Much work was under way here yesterday as crews rushed to repair damaged business blocks and commercial enterprises.
The reconstruction of homes will be a slower process, it appeared, as the financing of this work presented some complications. However, the Red Cross expected to start the repair and rebuilding of homes sometime this week.
As civic directors and reconstruction officials looked upon the picture, just one week after Helena's only major disaster, only a feeling of security for the years ahead was reflected.
New Determination
"Helena was suffered greatly in loss of life, injury and destroyed property. Business also has taken its losses, but out of it all will come a renewed determination to go ahead," said Sam V. Stewart, associate justice of the Montana supreme court, and chairman of the Helena Earthquake Reconstruction committee.
His viewpoint was reflected in the vast program of rehabilitation already under way.
In all sections of the torn city were the scars of the terrifying 35 seconds of October 18 being erased.
Old buildings, many of them doomed long before the earth began its violent trembling, fell under the blows of workmen; new and temporary abodes were going up here and there; chimneys and roofs torn by the quake were being replaced, and existing dangers lurking in twisted walls were being hunted out by a corps of engineers.
In the heart of the Helena business district there was little left to remind one of the disaster except along South Main street, where old buildings tumbled or were twisted and jumbled about. New fronts were going into several stores and debris was being removed from others. Only the bulging wall of the building at Main and Broadway remained in a restricted area, and engineers were expected to decide momentarily on what should be done to correct this hazard.
Business As Usual
Business went on about as usual Saturday and only a few places remained closed. Theaters, however, were to stay dark until exhaustive examination had proven them safe for occupancy.
To carry on its vast program of re-building Helena, had the resources of the Red Cross, the Federal Housing administration, Helena banks, which offered generous assistance, and the Reconstruction Finance corporation, which was to have $150,000 of federal funds to loan through the local reconstruction committee.
As it forged ahead with its phase of the rebuilding plan, the Federal Housing administration, through S. L. Berg, supervising architect, suggested that it might prove more economical to many of the homeless householders to erect new places rather than to rebuild.
Many structural weaknesses have been found and these are difficult to correct. The FHA also suggested that it might prove economically prudent for many to build anew in different locations.
While private property owners looked forward to new homes, city authorities also saw in the disaster the probability of a long-needed new city hall.
The ancient quarters of the city administration just off South Main street were shattered and later evacuated as the walls began to crumble and fall.
[Helena Independent; October 27, 1935]


At midnight last night Helena's total of earth tremors since Oct. 12 had reached 499, it was reported at the Helena weather bureau. There were 19 recorded at the weather bureau over the 24-hour period ending at midnight. All were described as "weak" except the one at 9:13 o'clock last night, of about two seconds duration, which was characterized by the weather bureau as "moderate."
From 6 o'clock last evening until midnight there were seven tremors felt in the city, the last being between 10 and 11 o'clock. A tremor at 7:34 last night lasted for about two seconds, but was more of a rumble than a vibration.
[Helena Independent; October 27, 1935]


Helena's Western Union office experienced one of its busiest weeks on record following the big earthquake on October 18, W. H. War, manager said yesterday. It was perhaps the biggest week since the fire in Helena in July, 1928, which threatened to burn down the office.
When the power failed during the major earthquake, the Western Union's emergency power plant was placed in operation, thus putting the office here in contact with the outside. All employees of the big office here were immediately summoned to work, and all responded splendidly, Mr. War said.
Emergency Office
"During this period of excitement and chaos an emergency office was established in an outlying section of the city in the event that anything happened at the main office, so that telegraph service could be carried on," said Mr. War.
"By 9 a.m. Saturday the local forces were augmented with operators, clerks and managers from Billings, Great Falls and Butte, who were rushed here to assist in handling the great volume of messages and press matter. Every regular and as many additional messengers as could be obtained, likewise taxicabs and drivers were placed in the service for use in picking up and delivering messages, which was difficult under the chaotic conditions throughout the city.
"Superintendent U. G. Life of Denver said the loyalty and courage displayed by our people and the long hours worked throughout the ordeal, was phenomenal.
Press Messages
"All press files and messages were handled on the wires within the schedule time. In the commercial office there were from 10 to 15 clerks used constantly on counter, delivery and telephone work during Friday, Saturday, Sunday, Monday and Tuesday. Night and day shifts were employed.
"Of the several thousand messages sent and received, all were handled in an entirely satisfactory manner.
"Great assistance was afforded by local customers and friends in giving the telegraph company information as to the whereabouts of people who could not be located at their homes.
"Mr. Life predicts Helena will be back stronger and better than ever within a short time. He adds that he has never seen Montanans with their heads down and right now they are up and going about the job of rehabilitation in their usual stable, smiling and energetic way."
[Helena Independent; October 27, 1935]

Will Hold Meet With Consul Of Diocese About Repairs

Bishop Ralph L. Hayes will arrive here tomorrow morning by plane from Pittsburgh to meet with the diocesan consulators in regard to taking necessary steps to repair damage wrought by the earthquake on October 18, it was announced yesterday.
The carrara marble crucifix over the back of the tabernacle of the main altar at the Cathedral of St. Helena was smashed through the marble platform and steps of the altar without even so much as scratching the latter.
It was estimated that the damage done at the cathedral will not exceed $5,000, while Carroll college will be fully repaired for about $10,000. To repair the church at East Helena it will cost about $2,000. A preliminary estimate made yesterday places the injury done at St. Mary's parish in Helena at from $5,000 to $1,000.
Heavy Loss
It may require $50,000 to restore St. Joseph's home in Helena valley. Funds will also be needed to repair St. Vincent's academy and the Home of the Good Shepherd.
For three successive nights, the sisters and the pupils of St. Joseph's Orphan home slept in the cow barn. The cows were out in the pasture. A few calves were kept in the barn. As there was not a spark of fire in the barn these cold nights, the sisters and children returned to the house Tuesday night.
The sisters and the children of the Good Shepherd fled from their building and took refuge in the open summer pavillian on the children's playground. They remained there until Friday. On that day the residence of the late Senator T. C. Power was put at their disposal by Msgr. Day. At the present time they occupy the Power residence at night and return to the monastery of the Good Shepherd in the morning. The work in classrooms and the laundry goes on as usual.
[Helena Independent; October 27, 1935]

Applications Expected To Start Within Few Days

Norman Winestine, president of the newly-formed Montana Reconstruction corporation, yesterday announced that the agency had received about 40 inquiries from persons whose property was either damaged or totally demolished by the giant earthquake, concerning loans to be used for rehabilitation of homes or business buildings.
"The inquiries we have received," he said "involve sums ranging from slightly over $100 to $70,000, but it is a trifle early yet for the filing of formal applications.
"We feel gratified, however, at having so many people show their interest in the corporation, and are confident that many loans will be made through our office.
Not For New Work
"One point we wish to place emphasis on," he added, "is the fact that the work for which funds will be loaned through this office must be strictly of a replacement nature. We cannot loan money to be used in building new structures or additional to old structures."
The reconstruction finance corporation must be given a clear first mortgage on all properties on which money is loaned for rehabilitation work, according to Mr. Winestine. The loans will be at 4 per cent interest. He said, however, that in the case of school districts, their bonds or tax anticipation warrants serve as satisfactory collateral.
[Helena Independent; October 27, 1935]


The advisory committee of the Red Cross for Lewis and Clark county will act as the award committee when funds are made available for repairing homes, E. S. Transue, disaster relief representative of the American Red Cross, said yesterday.
R. E. Towle is chairman of this committee, while the members are Dick Tobin, John Gough and J. D. MacKenzie of East Helena, and Quay Painter. Sam Roberts, chairman of the Lewis and Clark chapter of the Red Cross, and A. T. Hibbard, secretary, will aid the committee.
Red Cross workers will make the recommendations to the committee, which may either approve, disapprove, or amend such recommendations. In making the recommendations they will be presented to the committee by case number instead of by name, Transue said.
Take Four Weeks
He said that as far as the Red Cross is concerned, its work should take not more than four weeks. After the awards are made for rebuilding homes, the American Red Cross turns the whole matter over to the local advisory committee.
Miss Frances Blackburn, a disaster relief case worker, is expected to arrive in Helena today for active service, while Paul T. Carlson, field representative for Montana, whose headquarters are in St. Louis, will leave today.
Mrs. Florence Martin, a case worker, arrived here yesterday to help in the Red Cross work. Miss Henrietta Wilkins was the first to get here, arriving from Los Cruces, N. M. on Friday.
Transue said that the heads of more than 150 families have registered with the Red Cross so far.
[Helena Independent; October 27, 1935]


After a day's investigation, P. L. Hein, inspection engineer for the treasury department, said yesterday afternoon that there is not a "structural fault in the entire federal building." Hein was sent here by the treasury department from Chicago.
He was directed to inspect the buildings under the custody of Postmaster Harry Hendricks, which are the federal building and the assay office. His inspection of the assay office will take place Monday.
Besides these two buildings, Hein also plans to inspect other larger buildings in the city damaged by the big earthquake, and will submit a report to the treasury department on the types of buildings in this earthquake zone that best withstood the terrific jolt.
At the federal building here, plaster cracks in the partitions and walls constituted the entire damage, with the exception of a chimney that was knocked over.
Hein described the big building as "very well designed for rigidity, and well able to withstand earthquake shocks."
[Helena Independent; October 27, 1935]


Rehabilitation in East Helena is progressing in good shape following the big earthquake a week ago Friday night, and most of the store fronts in the Smelter town have been either temporarily repaired or have been torn away to speed up permanent repairs.
In most of the stores, business went ahead last week as usual. While the business district of East Helena suffered considerably, residences, generally, were undamaged, except for wrecked chimneys. Most of the houses in East Helena are frame, and therefore withstood the big shock in good shape.
Two casualties were checked up in East Helena due to the major quake. They were Mrs. Sam Koich and her daughter, Dorothy, who were injured when they were struck by falling bricks. Both are recovering in good shape.
[Helena Independent; October 27, 1935]


Franklin P. Ulrich of the U. S. coast and geodetic survey, who came to Helena last week with Dean S. Carder, also of the U. S. C. and G. S., to study the disturbances in the Helena area, said yesterday that he believed the epicenter of the big quake was in the vicinity of Nelson. Although there are few buildings there to test the strength of the earthquake in that neighborhood, residents said that it was more violent than it was in Helena.
Ulrich said that he is scheduled to deliver a radio talk over a coast-to-coast network Thursday evening, November 7, at 7:30 o'clock, M. S. T. Although he will discuss earthquakes as a general topic, it is expected that he will speak extensively on the Helena temblors.
[Helena Independent; October 27, 1935]

City Revives
Helena Scans Picture And Finds Only Optimism

Having scanned every dark aspect of the picture presented by its present distressing plight, Helena yesterday still found abundant room for confidence in the future and this week will have its reconstruction program in full swing, unmindful of the recurrent earth disturbances which occur at intervals.
Even the pronounced tremor at 12:22 p.m., yesterday, one of longer duration than any since the destructive shock of October 18, failed to disturb this quake-conscious city more than moderately.
The tremor lasted fully five seconds but was peculiar in that it was not as sharp, or of as high frequency as most of those preceding it. It appeared to be a slow rocking movement, traveling east and west, and was accompanied by only a slight rumbling.
Is Encouraging
Scientists studying the Helena earthquake take this fact as nearly definite proof that the movement has about reached its climax, that the growing pains in the belly of the earth are being rapidly relieved and complete quiet will prevail soon.
Sunday brought literally thousands of curious visitors to the city to view the stricken homes and business buildings. They came from all parts of the state, and but few of the 56 counties were not represented. Hundreds of cars were here from Great Falls, Butte and Anaconda, while Missoula was only slightly behind. The streets were filled with sightseers and traffic was congested all day long.
The heavy tremor shortly after noon discouraged some of the visitors and sent them dashing from the city, but hundreds of others continued to pour into the city during the afternoon. Anticipating just such a situation, the state highway patrol was on duty in force on the highways leading into the city and traffic was kept in order.
Already Started
Much rebuilding activity was evident yesterday and far more will get under way during the coming week. Business buildings damaged by the shakes are being repaired as rapidly as possible. Reconstruction work has not proceeded as rapidly as it would otherwise, due to difficulty in obtaining certain types of skilled labor.
A crew of 50 men is at work at the Kessler brewery, repairing damage to brick walls and the boiler room. In the meantime, a Northern Pacific locomotive is furnishing the steam to run the plant.
Workmen have been engaged several days tearing down loose brick at the new high school building. Repairs will be started as soon as a thorough inspection of the building is completed.
H. Walter Larson, who has started reconstruction of his badly damaged business block and apartments in the Sixth ward, announced yesterday that the job would be completed in about 10 days. A large crew of men have been working since immediately after the major quake. In the older part of the building, the brick front walls have been taken down and are being replaced by heavily reinforced frame and stucco structure. The newer part was not damaged to any great extent and only the brick parapet will have to be replaced. On the interior, several of the second-floor apartments will have to be replastered.
South Main street was a busy scene yesterday as the fronts in several damaged buildings were being replaced. The work at the Exchange Tavern was almost completed.
Home owners throughout the city were also busily engaged in rebuilding chimneys and repairing walls not too badly damaged. Most of them, however, are waiting until their property can be inspected to determine the exact extent of damage.
Little damage has been done by the tremors that followed the main show 10 days ago, although in a few cases loose bricks and weakened chimneys have toppled down.
During the coming week, the Red Cross will start its rebuilding program for those left without resources to do the work themselves.
Army Engineers
Yesterday the four army engineers from Fort Peck, headed by Captain Henry Chorpening, started a minute inspection of the new high school building. They will go over the building with a "fine-toothed" comb and will prepare an elaborate report on their findings. When they have finished that job, they will begin on the other school buildings. They are expert structural and architectural engineers, selected for this assignment.
P. L. Hein, government structural engineer, who was sent here from Washington to examine the federal building, yesterday offered his services to City Engineer Oscar Baarson and will spend several days here making inspections of some of the more important buildings.
This morning, an important research project will be started by Dean S. Carder and Franklin P. Ulrich of the U. S .Coast and Geodetic Survey. They will install their seismograph on the top of several of the higher buildings of the city for the purpose of studying the amplitude and period, or wave frequency, of the earth shocks. Their data will be compiled in a government bulletin and will be invaluable for use in future construction of buildings in this area.
The buildings on which the tests are to be made, selected by City Engineer Baarson, are the state capitol, the Montana club, the Placer hotel, National Bank of Montana building, the Power block and the old Gans and Klein building.
It was reported yesterday that the earthquake had increased the flow of water in the Eureka well and the Bed Rock system materially but this had not been confirmed by measurement, as far as could be learned. A new spring flowing 15 inches of water was discovered on the Gumprecht ranch north of the city.
City crews under Commissioner Noble Evans were proceeding with the work of tearing down walls and buildings deemed unsafe. Sagging walls have been pulled down from several old buildings on State and Wood streets during the last two days and several dwellings have been torn down at the request of the owners. Today, the old building on South Main street, where David Harris was killed when the front wall fell out, will be demolished completely.
At midnight last night, the tremor total for the current epidemic stood at 522. Twenty-three occurred in the preceding 24-hour period. The shock at 12:22 yesterday noon, lasting five seconds, was the only heavy one recorded although two lasting about two seconds were chalked up shortly after 2 o'clock and at 9:09 yesterday morning. The others were de [ ? ]

Helena, for the most part, was becoming case-hardened to the repeated seismic motions of the earth and the entire city had resumed its normal functions. Scores who had been away since last Friday night or early Saturday were flocking back into the city and many homes unlighted for a week were opened Sunday night for the first time.
Through the entire and widely separated quake sections of the city scores tramped on foot where restrictions prevented the use of automobiles. The crowd of visitors was far greater than a week ago when the earth was in almost constant motion.
Highway patrolmen, guardsmen and police again kept a tight rein on the stricken sections, but by sundown most of the great army of sight-seers had taken off for home. Main street again was hushed for the theaters have not been permitted to resume operations pending final and complete structural examinations.
Many of the earthquake jaded journeyed to Great Falls or Butte for a movie or a dinner, or into the mountains to release a pent up feeling.
Churches, those habitable, were well filled with Sunday worshippers and in several the text of the sermon dealt with the city's major disaster in 72 years of activity, all centered in the narrow confines of Last Chance gulch. All places of worship had been closed since the disastrous quake.
St. Peter's procathedral (Episcopal) which escaped with only loosened cement and plaster in the ceiling of its arched auditorium roof, extended an invitation to the congregation of St. Paul's Methodist church to use any portion of its church property for religious purposes. The latter church, Broadway and Ewing, was badly damaged and will require much reconstruction.
Several other churches deferred further congregational sessions until next Sunday or later, while some met in improvised quarters as they considered plans for the future.
[Helena Independent; October 28, 1935]


Slight earthquake damage was suffered by the new Helena public library, Mrs. Mabel T. Miller, librarian, announced at the regular monthly meeting of the board of trustees.
The building itself received no structural damage, and only a few cracks appeared on the inside, and these are believed to be superficial, she said.
A few books were thrown from their racks on the main floor, but hundreds of them tumbled out on the floor of the balcony.
An old stone chimney, no longer used, was cracked and has been taken down, according to Fred S. Sanden, president of the board of trustees. It has not been decided yet whether or not it will be rebuilt.
Members of the board expressed gratitude that this important city institution had been spared.
The library was reopened Wednesday and has since been visited by hundreds of Helena people.
[Helena Independent; October 28, 1935]


Great Falls, Oct. 27--The major earthquake of Friday night, Oct. 18, caused collapse of an eight-inch casing 2,550 feet underground of the Tarrant well on the Thacker Bond and Mortgage company farm in the south end of the Cut Bank oil field, according to O. I. DeSchon, editor of the Montana Oil and Mining Journal.
The collapse of the Tarrant well casing was the only damage reported by operators in the field after a survey by Mr. DeSchon. Many operators did report, however, a slight variation in the production of their wells in Cut Bank field which generally has been attributed to the quake.
The Tarrant well is located in the northwest quarter of extension 27, township 32, range 5 west, in Glacier county. On Friday, Oct. 18, drillers had reached the 2,550-foot level and cemented the eight-inch casing. Saturday morning when they resumed drilling the casing had collapsed, which was very unusual. There is little question but what the collapse was caused by the quake of Friday night, according to word received by Mr. DeSchon.
Reports from the Kevin field indicated that no damage or variation in production has taken place as a result of the quake.
After the major quake on June 27, 1925, where the epicenter was in the vicinity of Lombard and Three Forks, an oil well near Cody, Wyo., that had been unproductive for several years "blew" considerable gas and oil for a few days after the earthquake. From 1909 to 1924 it production probably did not exceed 200 barrels, but on the following day the well threw a column of mixed oil and water 30 to 40 feet in the air. The flow of gas was estimated at about 5,000,000 cubic feet a day and oil and water at 1,500 barrels a day. After a few days it again became inactive.
[Helena Independent; October 28, 1935]


Earth tremors hit the 530-mark and the mercury hit the 10-mark, it was reported at midnight by the Helena weather bureau.
There were a total of seven earth disturbances reported for the 24-hour period ending at midnight, the last one, described as "very weak," being recorded at 9:47 last night.
The weather came into the spotlight as the moderate cold wave sent the thermometer down 50 degrees in the 24-hour period ending at midnight. It was exactly 60 at midnight Sunday.
At 4 yesterday morning the recording was 47, and at 6 a.m. it was 48. By 11:40 yesterday morning the mercury had fallen to 36, and at 4:30 in the afternoon the reading was 25.
The temperature was 22 at 5:30 in the afternoon, and 16 at 8:30 last night.
The weather bureau reported that there was a trace of moisture. A few flakes of snow fell between 9 o'clock last evening and midnight.
[Helena Independent; October 29, 1935]

Application Is Filed For Additional $80,000

As workmen yesterday toiled at the task of preparing for occupancy the 30 rooms of the new high school, which were not badly damaged by the earthquake, the school board prepared and filed with the PWA application for an additional grant of $80,000 to be used in rebuilding the shattered portion of the structure. Classes will be resumed in two or three weeks, officials said.
"We have secured the services of E. J. Decker, construction superintendent for the West Coast company," E. M. Hall, chairman of the Helena public school board stated, "and he is supervising the work of preparing those rooms which were not seriously injured for the resumption of classes."
R. O. Evans, superintendent of Helena's public schools, yesterday stated that crews are repairing the heating, plumbing and lighting equipment of the building, while other workmen are removing the furniture and fixtures from the rooms which must be vacated.
"As only part of the building was damaged by the earthquake," Mr. Evans stated, "the school board itself is undertaking the task of repairing the remainder of the building as we are anxious to resume classes as soon as possible."
There are sufficient rooms to accommodate the students in actual class work, but a different plan has been worked out for the study periods, he said.
The small study hall, the library and, during some hours, the cafeteria will be used as a study hall, but students who have study periods during the first period of the morning or afternoon, will not be required to come to school until time for the actual class work. Students who are assigned to study periods for the last period of the morning or afternoon will be allowed to go home.
Inspection Made
Inspection of the city's remaining five grade schools has been completed, and as the inspection disclosed that they are structurally sound, repair work has been started under the supervision of Linn Smith, general contractor.
The equipment of the demolished Bryant school is being removed, and only two rooms yet remain to be stripped. Most of the furnishings in the principal's office were damaged beyond repair, Mr. Evans said.
Workmen are installing additional blackboards in the rooms in the Broadwater school which are to be used for classrooms for the first four grades of the Bryant school.
Grade schools in the city will be ready for use about November 4, according to Mr. Evans.
[Helena Independent; October 29, 1935]


Oscar Baarson, city engineer and ex officio building inspector, yesterday stated that in the rebuilding of chimneys damaged by earthquake, the brickwork must be raised to a point at least one foot from the nearest part of the roof, and that in all brickwork, mortar containing one part of cement should be used.
"My attention has been called to chimney brickwork has been raised only a foot above the lower slope of the roof," Mr. Baarson said, "and when a jack is put on such a chimney the metal touches, or nearly touches, the shingles on the upper side.
"This practice is not in compliance with city ordinances and is hazardous, as when the metal jack becomes heated it might set fire to the roof. Neither should stacks be nailed to the wood of roofs, as this too is likely to result in a fire.
"In order to safeguard against fires, five or six courses of brick should be laid above the nearest part of the roof, and chimneys should be capped with cement."
[Helena Independent; October 30, 1935]


Postmaster Harry Hendricks said yesterday that the treasury department had authorized the calling of bids for repairs to earthquake damage done at the federal building and the assay office, both of which are under his custody. Specifications will be drawn up by P. F. Hein, treasury department engineer, who came here to investigate the damage. The treasury department instructed Hendricks to let the work on the buildings on two separate contracts. The principal damage at the federal building is a wrecked chimney and plaster cracks in the wall partitions.
[Helena Independent; October 30, 1935]


Provisions of the city building ordinance, amending the present building code to require earthquake resistant construction in certain types of structures, are given below in full for the information of persons planning repairs or new buildings which involve brick or masonry construction.
The ordinance was passed Tuesday on first reading by the city council and will be up for final passage next Tuesday. It will become effective immediately upon passage as an emergency measure.
The complete text of the ordinance follows:
Section 1--It shall be unlawful for any person or persons, firm, corporation, society or association or organization to erect, construct, enlarge, alter or repair, or cause or permit the erection, construction, enlargement, alteration or repair of any building or structure wherein masonry, as defined by the building code, is used in the city of Helena, without fully complying with the following specifications relative to the use of masonry in connection with such erection, construction, enlargement, alteration or repair:
(a) All mortar for all types of masonry, including interior clay tile partitions, shall be cement mortar composed of one part of Portland cement and three part of sand by volume with an allowable addition of lime putty or hydrated lime of not to exceed 50 per cent by volume of the cement content. All measurements shall be box measurements and all mortar shall be thoroughly mixed. All mortar shall be used within one hour after the addition of the Portland cement, and no mortar shall be retempered.
(b) All masonry units shall be laid with full shoved mortar joints with all head, bed and wall joints solidly filled with mortar.
Bond In Masonry
(c) All brick work shall be laid with full header courses bonded through walls not more than every fifth course in height.
Veneer and Facing
(d) All masonry veneer and facing shall be fully bonded as herein provided, except that masonry veneer or facing may be applied in front of steel or reinforced concrete members or walls when tied or anchored thereto by the equal of nine gauge galvanized iron wire spaced 12 inches on centers vertically and 16 inches on centers horizontally.
In veneering on wood frame (type V) construction, the veneer shall be tied to the studding by 30D common nails driven to a two-inch penetration not more than 12-inches on center vertically, nor more than 16 inches on center horizontally. Corrugated clips and other forms of ties are prohibited unless approved by the building inspector. Veneering on wood frame, (type V) construction will not be permitted except on residences, duplexes and private garages.
Used Masonry Units
(e) No used or secondhand masonry units shall be used unless they are sound and at least 90 per cent whole, and have been thoroughly cleaned of all adhering mortar.
(f) All masonry units shall be thoroughly wetted not more than one hour before laying and shall be damp at time of laying, except during freezing temperatures.
(g) All bonding surfaces of old or existing masonry to which new masonry is to be added shall be thoroughly cleaned of all old mortar and the surface thoroughly wetted and cement grouted at time new work is built.
All new masonry shall be definitely tied into old or existing masonry by means of reinforced concrete, steel or other means which will be adequate, in the opinion of the building inspector, to meet the special condition.
All walls or part of walls which are shattered or in which the bond between the mortar and the brick is ruptured shall be taken down to a point where the wall is tight and well bonded.
Concrete Ties
(h) Except on two-family dwellings and private garages, the exterior walls of masonry construction shall be tied vertically and horizontally with reinforced concrete ties as follows:
Horizontal belt course ties shall be placed under the floor joists of each floor above the first floor and under the ceiling joists or roof rafters. Vertical ties shall be placed at each corner of the building and not more than eight inches in any dimension and in no case more than four inches thinner than the wall. The depth of horizontal ties shall be at least equal to the wall thickness minus the width of a brick, but in no case less than eight inches. Each vertical and horizontal tie shall be reinforced with four reinforcing bars of the size shown in the following table:
Stories -- 4 3 2 1
4 4" 0
3 4" 0 4" 0
2 4" 0 4" 0 4" 0
1 4-1" € 4" 0 4" 0 4" 0
(Note) "0" means "round." "€" means "square."
All vertical and horizontal bars shall lap 40 diameters of the bar but in no case less than 24 inches. Vertical ties shall extend to the top of the parapet wall. All vertical and horizontal bond ties shall be banded with one-quarter inch round hoops not more than 18 inches on center.
In lieu of concrete ties and belt courses structural steel ties may be used when approved by the building inspector.
Lintels over openings more than 10 feet in width which are of structural steel shall be encased over top and sides with concrete or masonry: When the ends of lintels are less than 18 inches apart they shall be effectively tied together.
Parapet Walls
(i) All masonry parapet walls shall be not more than 36 inches in height above the roof adjacent thereto. A horizontal belt course tie of reinforced concrete shall be placed at the top of parapet walls. All terra cotta, cast stone or other material used in addition for coping ornament or appendage shall be securely anchored by steel rods or angles into the brickwork and concrete ties. Such ties shall be reinforced with at least one one-half inch round bar continuous. Horizontal parapet wall ties shall be not less than two courses of brick deep and shall be at least eight inches wide. All masonry parapet walls shall be reinforced with three-eighths inch round bars not over 18 inches on center extending into the belt course tie below and hooped around the horizontal reinforcing bar in the top capping. Such vertical bars shall be placed four inches from the roof side of the wall.
(j) In rebuilding chimneys they shall be taken down below any point of possible fracture and rebuilt, using the mortar specified above.
In each of the corners of new chimneys place at least one one-half inch round bar and every 18 inches on center of vertical height place a one-quarter inch tie laid in the mortar joint. Where chimneys are built of one thickness of brick with flue lining, the vertical reinforcing bars may be placed between the flue lining and the brick and such places shall be well filled in with mortar.
Section 2--Any person, firm, corporation, society, association or organization, whether as principal, agent, servant or otherwise, violating any of the provisions of this ordinance shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by fine not to exceed $500 or by imprisonment in the city jail of the city of Helena for a period not exceeding six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
Section 3--All other ordinances and parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed and this ordinance shall supersede all part of the building code of the city of Helena in conflict herewith.
[Helena Independent; October 31, 1935]


Governor Frank H. Cooney Tuesday evening condemned in no uncertain terms the harbingers of disaster in the Helena earthquake situation, in a radio address over a Butte broadcast, warning the people against the danger lurking from the lips of self appointed "seers and soothsayers."
The Governor was speaking to the people of the State of Montana about the Helena earthquake and telling them a sane and truthful story about the disaster, without color. He also appealed to the people to cooperate with the Red Cross and other agencies which are bringing aid to the people of Helena for their immediate needs and encouragement for rebuilding and repairing their homes and business houses.
"I would not leave the subject without expressing the hope that the people of other portions of the state may not be influenced by wild, irresponsible stories of havoc and devastation that seem to spring out of the idle minds in emergencies such as this," said the Governor. "The situation in Helena is a serious one, of course, but it is not as harrowing as many of these stories would have you believe."
Governor Cooney reached a large audience on the air and his address is much appreciated by Helena citizens, business men, bankers and especially by those who have friends elsewhere who have been mislead and caused much anxiety by the wild stories peddled by the sensational papers. The Governor's reprimand to the harbingers of disaster is taken to include the editors of a local publication who predicted "another eruption," and expressed the fear that a plague of disease would follow the earthquake, more dreadful in its consequences than the earthquake itself.
Governor Cooney has the thanks of every right thinking person in Helena and the friends of the city outside.
[Helena Independent; October 31, 1935]

Total Represents But Portion Of Work Under Way

Eighteen building permits for construction totaling $7,875, have been issued since October 18, the date of the destructive earth shock, the records of City Engineer Oscar Baarson reveal. Nearly as many more had been issued during the period from October 12, when the first severe quake was felt, and October 18.
The permits are chiefly for repair of damage caused by the quakes but two or three have been for new dwellings to cost from $1,000 to $2,000. October's building total will probably set a record for this month of the year in Helena.
Small Part
City Engineer Baarson admitted that the permits issued to repair earthquake damage represent only a small proportion of the construction work actually under way at the present time.
"Because of the emergency situation, we are not inclined to be strict about the matter of obtaining permits at this time," he said. "In the case of dwellings, it was imperative in many instances that repairs be made at once to chimneys and walls so that they might be inhabited.
"On the other hand we have been so busy with the imperative work of inspecting buildings that it would have been impossible for us to have checked on all building operations to determine permits had been obtained. This will be done later, when we are able to get a breathing spell, in order that we may have a complete record of the work done here."
Most Recent
Those issued since Oct. 18 are:
S. A. Fisher, 820 Sixth avenue; remove porch and add room, 16 by 32, stucco, with cedar shingle roof, at that address, $1,000.
Mrs. W. C. Whaley, 532 Breckenridge street; repair chimney and brick work of dwelling at that address, $100.
Ray Perkins, 809 North Warren street; erect temporary dwelling, 12 by 14, frame, with composition roof, at that address, $50.
Joe Plattenberg, Canyon Ferry; remove back brick wall and replace with brick veneer at residence at 914 Fifth avenue, $300.
Herrmann and company stucco funeral home building at Broadway and Rodney street $700.
Bert Warfield, 16 North Rodney street pull down walls and partly rebuild south wall of flat at 14 and 16 North Rodney; $500.
F. S. McCoskery, 725 Eleventh avenue; move Blue Mill service station, at Eleventh avenue and Roberts street, parallel with Eleventh; $175.
Warehouse Repairs
Nash-Finch company; rebuild end walls and repair roof of company's stone warehouse building; $900.
George Gabisch of Townsend; remove brick on second story and replace with metal imitation brick on business building at 136-138 South Main street $250.
LaReau brothers, 421 Fifth avenue; general repairs to chimneys, windows and walls at 522 Breckenridge street; $50.
Monticello Apartments, Inc., Josiah Bowden, agent; replaster walls of apartment building at Broadway and Warren street; $100.
John Phillips, 101 South Main street; rebuild front and stucco building housing the Exchange Tavern at that address; $800.
Power-Townsend company; repair west wall of stone warehouse at National and Argyle avenues; $300.
Frank A. Newton, 117 Pine street; replace brick wall of residence at 11 North Rodney street; $100.
Leona M. Jones, Denver block; straighten and build up wall of Denver block; $350.
J. P. Dickson, 114 Broadway; straighten wall of Central block on Broadway; $200.
Reed Collings, 1225 Leslie avenue; erect one-story four-room dwelling on Wilder avenue, lots 28-32, block 98, Ming addition; 26 by 24 feet, frame with composition roof; $1,000.
Mrs. Emma Mayer; masonry and trim work on hotel building at 122-124 South Main street; $1,000.
[Helena Independent; October 31, 1935]


A few earth tremors yesterday, most of which were weak, brought the grand total since October 12 to 560 at midnight last night. The most noticeable disturbance yesterday was at 8:18 in the morning, but those which followed were barely noticeable. They occurred at 3:14, 3:32, 6:54, and 11:58.
At midnight last night the Helena weather bureau reported that the official temperature was 1 below zero. Snow began to fall shortly after 1 o'clock last evening, and by midnight .01 of an inch was recorded by the weather bureau.
[Helena Independent; October 31, 1935]


Helena's theaters, thoroughly inspected by engineers and pronounced untouched by the earthquake, will reopen Sunday afternoon with matinees, it was announced yesterday.
The Marlow was carefully inspected a week ago by the entire staff of 17 engineers, who had responded to the first call for assistance in examining buildings to determine whether or not they were safe for occupancy. Later Capt. C. H. Chorpening and his three army engineers from Fort Peck also went over the building.
Their reports were unanimous in pronouncing the structure 100 per cent safe. Only a few plaster cracks were discernable. The same was found to be true at the Antlers which was inspected subsequently.
Held Off
Although free to open, upon proper inspection, when Commissioner of Public Safety A. M. Shellady lifted the ban against public meetings, the managers of the show houses of their own record have refrained from opening in order to give the general nervousness a chance to subside. In the meantime, the Marlow has been extensively renovated on the interior and portions repainted and redecorated.
The Rio theater was inspected thoroughly Tuesday and was issued a certificate of occupancy yesterday. It was entirely undamaged. With all three houses given a clean bill, the managers decided to reopen Sunday at 2:15 p.m. In this they have the approval of the city officials who feel that the operation of places of amusement will have a good effect on the general morale of the city.
[Helena Independent; October 31, 1935]

Return to Newspaper Summary for Articles 100-149.

Return to Helena Earthquake Summary.

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