Six Engineers Are At Work On Urgent Project

Six structural engineers and their six assistants yesterday began the task of re-inspecting every structure in Helena damaged by earthquakes of October 18 and 31.
They planned to speed the work as much as possible, in consistency with sound inspections.
Oscar Baarson, city engineer and ex-officio building inspector, who is in charge of the campaign of inspection, said certificates of occupancy would be issued as rapidly as reports of the engineers can be written up and filed in his office.
Where a report on a structure indicates it unsafe for occupancy, a second inspection will be made by another engineer and the two reports compared before definite action is taken, Baarson said.
Nine FERA crews were in the field, leveling structures which embodied hazards. Working with these groups are rehabilitation forces, repairing the ravages of the quakes as fast as possible.
Classes will not be resumed in the public schools until all repair work has been completed and until occupancy of the various buildings has been authorized by engineers, perhaps not until early December, school officials said.
Superintendent R. O. Evans said he believed it would be possible to get in the required number of days for full accreditment this year, by cutting out many holidays and holding classes on Saturdays.
[Helena Independent; November 13, 1935]


Helena's municipal administration wrangle evident during the recent emergencies, bobbed into the foreground again yesterday when Commissioner of Public Safety Amos Shellady vigorously resented the attitude of Mayor C. J. Bausch toward payment of emergency debts.
The situation came to a head when the city council was asked to provide for the payment of $2,600 to 38 enlisted men of the national guard who served after the October 18th and 31st earthquakes.
More Arrests
Commenting upon the situation the Helena mayor evoked the wrath of the commissioner when he suggested the city police department should "work harder" and by "making more arrests and levying fines and penalties" raise funds to liquidate the lately added indebtedness.
"The Helena police department," Shellady retorted, "is not operated as a collection agency or revenue producing organization, but is for the protection of life and property and the preservation of public peace. Fines and penalties are incidental to those activities and it is regrettable when it is necessary to impose them."
Although a number of the guardsmen who served through bitter cold weather are now in need, city officials were advised, they received little encouragement that pay might be forthcoming. The mayor on the other hand, suggested it might be necessary for the legislature to act on the claim when it meets more than a year from now.
[Helena Independent; November 13, 1935]


Until a competent engineer makes a detailed report and a thorough investigation of all the buildings of the Helena school district, classes will not be resumed, according to Superintendent of Schools R. O. Evans.
This, he indicated, will be not earlier than the first part of December.
At the present time, a committee of the Helena school board is taking steps for the selection of the engineer and it is thought that some suitable man will be hired by the board within the next few days.
Repairs are going ahead on some of the buildings at full speed but school officials express themselves as doubtful if the work can be completed inside of three weeks.
Superintendent Evans pointed out that even if the schools are not opened until after the first of December, it will be possible to get in the required number of days for full accreditment this year. Before the earthquakes hit Helena, schools were in session 40-odd days and a schedule could be arranged so that the minimum number of 170 could be included, he believes.
By cutting out many holidays and holding classes on Saturdays it would be possible to finish the full year if the classes were not resumed until January 1 or after, it is said.
"Not until we receive all the facts in regard to the damage and we are sure the children will be safe, will the school work be resumed," the superintendent stated today.
[Helena Independent; November 13, 1935]

Long Beach Engineer Tells Kiwanians Of Huge Job

That City Engineer Oscar Baarson has not had the proper official cooperation or support, in the tremendous task that has confronted him as a result of the earthquakes, was strongly intimated yesterday by Charles Wales, Long Beach engineer, in an address before the Helena Kiwanis club.
Mr. Wales, who was city engineer of Long Beach at the time of the 1933 quake there, described that disaster and told of conditions in Long Beach following the tremor.
Had Big Staff
Declaring that City Engineer Baarson should have the fullest cooperation and unlimited backing in the work of inspecting buildings and rehabilitating the city, Mr. Wales drew a comparison between the situation here and that in the California city. When the Long Beach shock hit, he had a regular staff of 10 engineers in his office, but for the first 30 days after the tremor this force was increased to 100 and for the next six months he was permitted from 30 to 40 extra engineers at all times, he said.
Mr. Wales gave the Kiwanians a good idea of the huge task before Helena's city engineer at the present time and asserted that everything possible should be done to lighten the burden.
Conditions in Long Beach were not much different than here insofar as the one- and two-story buildings were concerned, he said, but there were many taller buildings there which received major damage. Utilities leading into Long Beach also suffered more heavily, he said, and at some points the gas was off for as long as six weeks.
"However, your city engineer needs a lot of help and the fullest cooperation from everyone in order to carry on the process of rehabilitation successfully," he said.
"He will have to insist that public safety be put above any private interests," he stated.
[Helena Independent; November 13, 1935]

Repairing Of Present Church Would Be Most Costly

Because of the great expense that would be involved in repairing the structure and making it earthquake-resistant, officials of the board of the Methodist church and officers of the organization, at a meeting last night, gave every indication that a new building would be sought to replace the present St. Paul's church at Ewing street and Broadway.
The meeting, held at the Opp and Conrad chapel, was presided over by Rev. Reuben Dutton of Missoula, superintendent of the Rocky Mountain district of the church.
The matter of funds to finance the new building will be submitted to the Methodist Home Mission board, and the church members at large. A new church would be constructed with all of the earthquake-resistant features.
Dr. Torbet Here
Dr. Walter Torbet of San Francisco, western representative of the Home Mission board of the Methodist church, attended the meeting last evening. He is on his way to Philadelphia to attend a meeting of the board Nov. 17 to 20, and he will there present the application of St. Paul's church.
Also in attendance at the Philadelphia meeting will be Bishop Titus Lowe of Portland, who will return here November 25 to further discuss the church building problem. A final decision as to what will be done will be made at that meeting.
In the meantime, the Methodist church congregation and Sunday school will meet Sunday afternoons at the Presbyterian church here.
[Helena Independent; November 13, 1935]


Missoula, Nov. 13--Western Montana is to be covered thoroughly in the effort of the American Legion to raise funds for the relief of Helena earthquake sufferers, it was announced by the chairman of the committee in charge of the local post's fund-raising quake dance. Every legion post in the western part of the state is being contacted to assist in conducting the drive and to cause a large crowd of supporters to come to Missoula from outlying cities.
Not only is the local post arranging to contact every legion post in this region, but posts in northern Idaho and central Montana are being asked to help the victims of the catastrophe in Montana's capital city. All civic organizations are to be contacted as well, and the committee is seeking to line up the support of Lions, Kiwanis and Rotary in nearby cities through the local clubs.
[Helena Independent; November 13, 1935]


"The government is sympathetic and will continue to aid Helena in its earthquake disaster," Governor Frank H. Cooney said yesterday following a conference with Frank C. Walker of Butte, head of the National Emergency council and direct representative of President Roosevelt.
Governor Cooney said that the conference was "encouraging" and that the president's representative indicated to him that the government would do everything in its power to assist Helena in its rebuilding program. "He is right with us," the governor said of Mr. Walker.
Help for Schools
While the question of rebuilding and repairing the damaged Helena schools was not definitely settled, the governor said that he was confident government aid could be obtained for such purposes. The governor and Mr. Walker were in conference for about a half hour.
He said that Mr. Walker expressed gratification that the government had been able to help out. "He didn't say that we wouldn't get further assistance," Governor Cooney said.
Mr. Walker, the president's right-hand man, left nothing unseen when he visited the Helena quake zone yesterday. Arriving here early from Butte after stopping briefly at Boulder for breakfast, the New Dealer immediately began an extended tour of the stricken sections of the city.
Until he had completed his tour of Helena, J. H. Rowe, emergency director here, announced Mr. Walker "would be available to no one." With the former Butte man on his tour were former State Senator Tom Walker, his brother, also of Butte, Mr. Rowe and others closely connected with the Helena program of rehabilitation which gained rapid impetus under the direction of Rowe.
Deplores Situation
As he halted for luncheon Walker said the Helena situation "was bad" but added his belief the work of rehabilitation was in competent hands.
The president, he said, is vastly interested in Helena and her recovery.
Mr. Walker said the city might expect federal aid for the restoration of the high school and perhaps some money toward replacing the destroyed Bryant school.
Direct financial aid for the use of householders, however, can only be supplied through the Red Cross, he said.
Although Mr. Walker spent most of his time here in a personal investigation of conditions, he returned to the governor's office in the afternoon and talked over the entire situation.
President Sympathetic
"It is quite distressing," he commented, "to return to Helena under such circumstances. I know personally many who have suffered severe losses, and I sympathize with them and all others similarly afflicted. The president has repeatedly expressed his sympathy for those so troubled here."
He said that aid will be continued for Helena through the FERA, the WPA, the Red Cross and other national agencies. He added that the question of federal aid for the restoration of damaged county and city buildings would be given most serious consideration in Washington.
After making a hurried survey of the city he returned to Butte.
[Helena Independent; November 14, 1935]


Washington, Nov. 13 (AP)--Senator James E. Murray, Montana democrat, today discussed plans for rehabilitation of Fort Harrison hospital at Helena, Mont., with Gen. Frank T. Hines, director of the veterans administration.
General Hines told the senator he was awaiting a complete report of damage at Fort Harrison by recent earthquake shocks. He said the Veterans administration desired to retain the hospital and rehabilitate it as speedily as possible. No estimate of damage or of funds necessary for rehabilitation has reached the Veterans administration.
Murray said he was satisfied Hines will act with all speed and that there is no intention of removing the hospital.
Only One in State
"Hines said it would be a grave mistake to remove the hospital since it is the only veterans facility in Montana," Murray said.
[Helena Independent; November 14, 1935]


Four slight tremors were recorded in Helena yesterday, the last one being 10:02 in the morning. This brought the total to 935 as the city went through its 33rd consecutive day of seismic activity.
Although the big cold wave, due yesterday, failed to materialize, the prediction for last night was unsettled weather and colder. At 6 o'clock in the evening the mercury stood at 36 above, and by midnight it had fallen to 24.
[Helena Independent; November 14, 1935]


While new certificates of occupancy have not been issued yet, a number of Helena buildings have been inspected during the last two days and found safe, City Engineer Oscar Baarson announced yesterday.
Reinspection of the buildings was started Tuesday, and due to the press of business the city engineer has not had time to write out the certificates of occupancy. He expects to start doing this today when he will take up the reports of his inspecting engineers in earnest.
Lack of Time
Up to last night he had been able to look over only a few of these reports. Buildings which Mr. Baarson had checked inspection reports and was able to announce as safe for occupancy yesterday were:
Power Block, Sixth and Main.
Power Block Annex, Sixth avenue.
Gold Block, Main street.
Helena Independent, Main street.
Record-Herald, Broadway.
First Christian Church, North Benton.
Placer Hotel, Main Street.
Montana Children's Home and Hospital buildings, Helena avenue.
Federal Building, Sixth and Park.
Many other structures have been examined but the reports of the engineers will not be prepared until today, Mr. Baarson said. Although handicapped by lack of assistants, the inspection work will be pushed as rapidly as possible.
Loses Engineers
Starting today Mr. Baarson's staff will be reduced to four inspecting engineers and a few assistants. The two state highway commission engineers, E. F. Moyle and Maxwell Mason, loaned to Mr. Baarson for the emergency, must return to their regular places in the bridge department of the highway commission.
Their services can be spared no longer, it was pointed out, because the highway body has a large number of projects which must be prepared for letting by December 15. If they are not let by this date, the state will lose a large amount of federal funds.
The services of Engineers Moyle and Mason were made available to the city thorough the courtesy of D. A. McKinnon, chief engineer, and B. J. Ornburn, head of the bridge department, of the highway board. They have been helping the city engineer almost constantly since October 18 and have been on the job a full month. The four engineers that Mr. Baarson has left were provided by the FERA and are being paid by that agency.
[Helena Independent; November 14, 1935]


West side parents will provide barracks for Hawthorne school pupils to attend classes in until the regular building has been thoroughly repaired and inspected, it was announced yesterday following a meeting of R. E. Towle and E. D. Patenaude with the school board here.
The barracks will be paid for by the parents, with none of the expense to be borne by the school district.
This plan was proposed because the parents feel that it may be months before the school building is ready for occupancy.
Public school teachers, all under contract, will be furnished by the school board, but this does not represent an added cost in view of the fact that they have all been paid during the shut-down.
The plan is to have a barracks of about 12 rooms, which will be built of rough material, lined with a composition wall board, and heated by gas furnaces. Lots on the west side will be secured for the building.
[Helena Independent; November 14, 1935]


Students of St. Vincent's academy are requested to call at the institution today to get their report cards, gymnasium equipment and return all text books.
It was announced that school has been suspended for the remainder of the school year as facilities for continuing the courses are not available at the present.
[Helena Independent; November 14, 1935]


A special engineer will be employed to make a thorough inspection of the First Lutheran church on North Rodney street and then to supervise the needed repairs, it was decided Tuesday night at a special meeting of church members.
Assurance of ample funds from the East to assist in the repair work was received. While the extent of the loss is not known, it is estimated that $2,500 will cover it. The building was declared unfit for occupancy after the October 18 earthquake.
[Helena Independent; November 14, 1935]


The Montana Children's home buildings on Helena avenue are being put in shape rapidly in order that St. John's hospital may be moved in there as soon as possible, Milo Dean, superintendent, said yesterday. It will probably be a month or six weeks before the job is completed.
Both of the buildings, the partially completed hospital and the main children's home building, are to be used by St. John's. Mr. Dean said the work of the home was going on as well as could be expected and that most of the children are being sheltered at the boys' building in the Helena valley. Others have been placed in private homes for the time being.
The federal government, the hospital and the children's home are cooperating on the work of making the city buildings ready for occupancy by the hospital. All of the hospital equipment from the evacuated St. John's building on Catholic hill will be moved into the new location as soon as possible. The hospital building at the children's home is one of the few earthquake-resistant structures in Helena.
[Helena Independent; November 14, 1935]


The case of how a landlord raised the rent of a house from $12 a month before the earthquakes to $50 a month now is submitted by B. F. Clough of 1720 Walnut street.
Clough said that he had lived in the place for two years and had "paid my rent every month in advance and do not owe them a penny."
The first year, Clough said he paid $15 a month, and that this rent was reduced to $12 up to the present time.
"Now they want me to move out by the 15th of this month," he said, "or if not by the first they will charge me $50 a month from now on."
[Helena Independent; November 14, 1935]


It took am emphatic opinion of the city attorney and nearly two hours of discussion to determine that an emergency really exists in Helena, when the council met in special session yesterday afternoon. Mayor C. J. Bausch conducted most of the discussion.
The meeting was called to consider for the fourth time the claims presented by Commissioner of Public Safety A. M. Shellady and City Engineer Oscar Baarson for emergency expenditures made by their departments for the protection of life and property since the October 18 earthquake. On all previous occasions the mayor had refused to approve them.
Total Not Great
Commissioner Shellady had claims for the payment of the national guardsmen who patrolled the city for three weeks; for preparing temporary quarters for the fire and police departments and for other miscellaneous expenses incurred in policing the city. Mr. Baarson's claims were for routine expenses in connection with the inspection of buildings and for the salary of one engineer he employed after October 18.
It is estimated that the emergency expenses incurred to the present time are only a little in excess of $3,000 and that the total probably will be less than $6,000. The chief item in the claims now before the council is that for payment of the national guardsmen.
Yesterday's meeting was scheduled to start at 3 o'clock but Noble Evans, street commissioner, failed to put in an appearance and Mayor Bausch would not call the meeting to order. The other two commissioners, the city attorney and other officials waited until 4:30 o'clock, at which time Evans was finally located at the Senate beer parlor. The meeting got under way about 5 o'clock.
City Attorney John W. Mahan then explained his opinion, asked by the mayor in regard to the legal right of the city to expend money to meet the liabilities incurred since the earthquake. The mayor had questioned the expenditure on the ground that it would force the city to exceed its budget.
Mr. Mahan explained that the budget had nothing to do with it and that the statutes gave the city or any other political subdivision the right to expend money to meet any sudden extreme emergency such as fire, flood or earthquake.
Unlimited Powers
"There is a definite limitation upon expenditures by the city for general administrative purposes, which means the normal and usual operation of the city government," Mr. Mahan pointed out, "but the city is given unlimited scope in meeting an emergency if the need arises.
"No person can say, under any conceivable construction of the statutes, that an emergency caused by an earthquake such as we have had constitutes general administrative expense. It is an emergency under the definition of the law and the city may expend money to meet it without regard to the budget. It is only necessary to declare an emergency by resolution and to issue emergency warrants. Provision for payment of the warrants shall be made by a special levy when the next city budget is prepared.
Legal Since Oct. 21
"This council formally declared the emergency on October 21, and since that time the mayor and the city clerk have had full legal authority to draw and issue emergency warrants for payment of any emergency expenses without further notice or hearing."
City Attorney Mahan emphatically recommended in his opinion that an Earthquake Emergency fund be created and warrants be issued against for payment of emergency expenses incurred.
Mayor Bausch was not yet satisfied and the budget law was trotted out for an airing. It was thoroughly dissected, and finally the city attorney made it emphatically plain that the emergency expenditures had nothing to do with the current city budget and in no way affected it or interfered with the appropriations for the various departments.
Changes Suddenly
Then the mayor suddenly capitulated and, with an unusual display of harmony, agreed that all the claims presented should be approved and paid.
He then explained that he had never really been opposed to payment of the emergency claims, but had merely held back because he feared the expenditures would be charged against the several administrative departments and would force the city to exceed its budget. He had wanted to be sure this would not happen, he said. His explanation occasioned great surprise among those present who were under the impression that the mayor previously had been flatly opposed to expending any money for emergency purposes.
It was finally decided that the city attorney should draw an ordinance formally creating an earthquake emergency fund and that the claims would be paid when this was officially passed.
[Helena Independent; November 15, 1935]


A further discussion on Helena's perplexing school problem took place at a regular meeting of the trustees of the school district here last evening.
Dr. T. L. Hawkins, who was appointed to secure an engineer to check over all of the school buildings and determine whether or not they are safe for occupancy, reported that an engineer would be here Monday from California to do the job.
This engineer was secured after Dr. Hawkins had written to the deans of leading engineering schools in the West and Middle West for recommendations. The engineer, whose name is being withheld for the present, asks for $100 a day and traveling expenses.
Cannot Accept Work
It was stipulated that whoever the engineer is, he cannot in any way accept any work in repairing or rebuilding the schools here.
The question of erecting barracks for the use of high school as well as grade school pupils was discussed, but was left somewhat up in the air, pending the arrival of the engineer next week. Chairman E. M. Hall felt that it would not be wise to spend money for barracks if that amount would repair the permanent buildings and make them earthquake resistant, especially in view of the fact that this school district has nearly reached its constitutional limit in the issuance of bonds.
The district cannot bond for more than $60,000 additional.
Sigvald Berg, supervising architect for the Federal Housing administration here, appeared before the board and congratulated the members on the engineer that they had selected to investigate the school buildings. He said that the engineer was well acquainted with earthquake-resistant construction, and that he will undoubtedly give an unbiased report.
One of the reasons for getting the independent engineer is to clear up any rumors about the construction of the new high school.
Cannot Occupy
Berg said the engineer would likely recommend that considerable new design and construction be done on the school buildings, and added that he does not believe they can be occupied for the remainder of this school year.
Mrs. George W. Langdorf, president of the Central School Parent-Teacher association, appeared before the board to express the sentiment of east side parents in regard to the opening of the schools. She said that these parents were just as interested in getting the schools open as any in the city, but that they were more interested in the safety of the children than a hasty and ill-advised resumption of classes. She expressed the confidence of the east side parents in the school board, which, she said, they believed would act wisely.
Chairman Hall submitted some estimates on the cost of constructing barracks for school use. He said that the barracks would come to about $725 a room, and that to house all the pupils in the district in this manner would cost in the neighborhood of $50,000.
A motion was carried to return to the Unionville school district the sum of $420 for pupils who would have attended the Helena schools the first semester of this school year.
Repairs by WPA
The board was advised that the Works Progress administration was expending $6,500 to repair the old high school building. Included in the repairs is the installation of tie-rods to keep the walls intact. The WPA asked that a formal lease be approved by the board on the building, subject to cancellation by either party upon 30 days notice. This is a new practice required by the procurement division of the treasury department, and the trustees voted to enter into the lease as outlined.
In his report to the board, City Superintendent R. O. Evans said that the minimum school year under the Montana statutes is 170 days, and that this many days of school could be had if classes were resumed on December 1, without the use of Saturdays. Usually the school year here lasts for 190 days. If school could start on January 1, Superintendent Evans said, the required 170 days could be gotten in by the use of Saturdays, with the school year closing June 5.
It was reported that 20 out of 30 students enrolled in the aviation classes of the high school were reporting for work each day at the airport. A plan to use the basement of the Christian church for orchestra, band and glee club was deemed inadvisable at this time by the board.
E. J. Decker of the West Coast Construction company told the board that 30 class rooms at the high school could be made available 60 days after reconstruction begins, with all the earthquake resistant features.
Summer School
The matter of resuming school here is still most indefinite, but it was brought out that if necessary, classes could go on until July 1 with the use of Saturdays.
A proposal was discussed to hold classes in residences throughout the city, but this was believed inadvisable.
Alex Wardlaw, chairman of the buildings and repairs committee of the board, reported that repairs would probably be completed this week at Broadwater, Central, Jefferson and Emerson schools, and would be ready for the inspection of the engineer who is coming here Monday.
On motion of Trustee Hawkins, the board turned down the idea of allowing teachers, now under contract with the district, to tutor in private homes for a fee. This applies only during the existing emergency.
A system of paying Jack Smelser, radio weather report man at the airport, through the school district, was approved by the trustees. Smelser will get $25 a month from the city for his duties, and $25 from the state. He will act as assistant instructor in aeronautics. William Fahrner is the instructor.
Before adjourning, the board approved the tearing down of towers on the old high school and the removing of loose stones, to be paid for by the WPA.
[Helena Independent; November 15, 1935]


Thursday, Helena passed its thirty-fourth consecutive day of earth disturbances, and the score at midnight was 941, according to the Helena weather bureau. Tremors reported yesterday were described as weak, except one of two seconds duration at 6:35 in the morning, which was moderate. There were four recorded yesterday.
Although warmer weather in the state was the prediction at the weather bureau yesterday, the mercury fell from 30 at 6 o'clock last evening to 22 at close to midnight.
[Helena Independent; November 15, 1935]

W. E. Maughan Will Be In Charge Of The Instrument

The "strong motion" seismograph which was brought to Helena from Golden Gate park in San Francisco is to be a permanent decoration at the federal building.
Dr. Dean S. Carder of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey was advised from Washington, D.C., yesterday that the instrument shall remain in Helena.
Only a few weeks ago Postmaster Harry Hendricks asked Senator James E. Murray to do what he could to have a seismograph set up in this city. The matter was immediately taken up with the Coast and Geodetic Survey headquarters there and the results desired were obtained.
Maughan in Charge
In Helena the instrument will be under the charge of W. E. Maughan, meteorologist at the weather bureau. For the next two or three days Dr. Carder will give Mr. Maughan instructions on the operation of the machine.
The San Francisco man was highly pleased with the action of the government in authorizing him to leave the machine here.
Helena's seismograph does not record the slight temblors, but only those that are strong enough to set it off. It was on this machine that Dr. Carder obtained what he believes is one of the best earthquake records ever obtained. This occurred on October 31.
A special dark room in the basement of the federal building has been assigned to Mr. Maughan for the seismograph. It will be wired to the weather bureau offices on the top floor so that if a shock is strong enough to trip the pendulum, those in the offices will know immediately that the instrument is in operation.
Dr. Carder especially emphasized the fact that sight-seers will not be permitted to see the machine.
Machine's Description
In Dr. Carder's own words, following is a description of the instrument to be kept in Helena permanently:
"As a means of obtaining a picture of earth movements and forces during the time of greatest disturbance at its site, the U.S.C. of G.S. has developed the strong motion seismograph. To date, 51 of these machines are distributed in advantageous positions throughout California, especially in centers of population, and are being kept in proper adjustment. They are not in continuous operation as are the delicate instruments which pick up earth tremors from the opposite side of the world, but they are sitting waiting for something to happen. These dormant machines need something more than just a slight jar to wake them up. It takes more than the vibrations from a passing truck or street car. But if a tremor reaches damaging proportions, the platinum point on the bob of a little pendulum hanging inside a small platinum cup makes an electrical contact by the point touching the inside of the cup and the whole machine springs to life.
Motor Driven
"An electric motor drives a drum carrying photographic paper, a lamp is lit, and a clock beats off half seconds. The image of the lamp filament is reflected by three mirrors, one of each attached to a small pendulum which vibrates in response to the earth motion in a given direction. The three pendulums are set to respond to earth motion in three directions, for instance E-W, N-S and vertical. Three beams of light are hence reflected onto a cylindrical lens and from thence to a spot on the drum of photographic paper. As the little pendulums respond to earth motion, the beams of light move backward and forward, and thus describes a wavy line on the paper. The paper is developed and a permanent record of the earthquake is obtained."
[Helena Independent; November 15, 1935]


Pushing ahead with routine rehabilitation work in Helena, Albert Evans, Red Cross field representative here, announced a meeting of the Lewis and Clark county committee tonight to consider and check further rehabilitation and rebuilding estimates that have been turned in during the last three days.
Evans said he expected that 30 or 40 estimates would be ready for presentation. There were 30, all approved, for consideration at Tuesday night's meeting, bringing the total expenditure to over $25,000 for 100 projects. Three more registrations have brought the total to 289.
Although there is plenty of government money available through loan channels here, the Red Cross represents the only way that heads of families without enough security for loans can rehabilitate their buildings and get back to a position where they can become safe financial risks in the future.
In that respect the Red Cross is bearing the burden of rehabilitation and rebuilding for certain families.
[Helena Independent; November 15, 1935]

He Will Bring Plans For Houses To Be Built In City

Barclay Craighead, Montana director for the Federal Housing administration, will arrive here this noon from Washington, D.C., with all of the plans and specifications for houses to be created under the dwelling project of the Helena Development company. The company proposes to build between 50 and 60 new homes in Helena with the aid of the FHA and the Reconstruction Finance corporation through a $200,000 bond issue.
A. T. Hibbard, chairman of the board of directors of the new company, said that in all probability a meeting of the board would be held this afternoon with Mr. Craighead. It was announced yesterday that articles of incorporation are all prepared and are ready to be filed. They will be gone over at today's meet.
Line Up Lots
In the meantime, the matter of securing lots on which to build the houses went ahead yesterday, according to Earl J. Murphy. Mr. Murphy will meet with the county commissioners this morning in regard to obtaining tax title property for building.
The office of County Assessor Charles Martien is established in the Empson building, and the force has been busy the last two days aiding the lot committee of the development company check up on the ownership and title of property. Valuations on the real estate have also been submitted.
Mr. Murphy said that several of the lots which have been thoroughly checked, have been submitted to the state FHA offices here for their approval and appraisal. The company can pay for the lots, in stock, only the amount set by the FHA. Mr. Murphy said that although he believes the company has managed to list "all of the choice lots in town," he is still receiving many calls every day in regard to listing additional property.
[Helena Independent; November 15, 1935]


Montana communities, large and small, dug deep into their money pockets and came up with definite and concrete expression of sympathy for Helena in its earthquake disaster.
Business leaders, officials and the persons who lost heavily in the quakes commended the spirit of self sacrifice and helpfulness shown by sister cities of the capital.
Donations of $2,500
O. C. Lamport, secretary of the Helena reconstruction committee has received to date donations totaling $2,518.80 and more are arriving daily. The money will be turned over to the committee's finance group, composed of T. O. Hammond, Cecil V. Wilson and Hugh R. Adair, for disposition, Lamport said.
From the Missoula branch of the Helena Relief fund yesterday morning came a check for $1,000 with a letter that said in part:
"We are happy to enclose a check for $1,000. We are continuing the effort and will unquestionably have $2,000 at least. This last amount will include the funds collected through the Red Cross for the same purpose, but will be handled directly through their organization."
J. D. Scanlan, publisher of the Miles City Star, sent the reconstruction committee a total of $586. His letter said:
"Enclosed you will find checks and draft for $586, with detailed list of individual contributors to the Helena relief fund. For your information I desire to state that there were no personal solicitations made. Every contribution was volunteered and with a good heart.
Newspaper Campaign
"We started the campaign asking for $500 with an announcement on the first page of The Star, and this is the result.
"These few little contributions are entirely independent of anything that the Red Cross may do in this community. The sympathy of all Miles City goes out to your good people in their tribulations. However, we cannot help but feel that their troubles will soon end. Out of them will come a bigger and better Helena."
The central Montana Chamber of Commerce at Lewistown forwarded a remittance of $250, and said:
"The members of this organization sincerely hope that this money will at least help in a small measure to relieve the distress occasioned by the earthquake. You may be sure that the citizens of Lewistown stand ready at any time to give any assistance possible."
A donation of $148 has been received from the Junior Woman's club of Red Lodge through Mrs. Martha Kimball, the corresponding secretary, who expresses hope that "we can alleviate some suffering or help in your tremendous task of reconstruction."
Manhattan and Ronan
Two remittances of $100 each came from the Ronan Commercial club and Manhattan, respectively. The letter of transmittal written by Secretary B. F. Johnson said in part:
"This is a donation by the Ronan Commercial club and the people of Ronan to the people of Helena to be used for the immediate needs of those who have suffered by the quake. We suggest that these funds be placed in the proper channels to accomplish the most good at the time."
The Manhattan State bank's letter read:
"Our check for $100 is a contribution from the citizens and business men of Manhattan for Helena and its people on account of the damage and suffering occasioned by the recent earthquake.
"Having gone through a similar experience here, our people are in a position partially to realize, at least, what you have all gone through, and hope that the old earth will settle down so there may be no more recurrence of such a disaster."
A contribution of $84 was sent in by the Fullerton auxiliary to post No. 2986 of the Veterans of Foreign Wars at Polson. The accompanying letter signed by Eunice Cowan, president, and Georgia Swart, chairman, said:
"Enclosed find $84 to be used to aid those stricken by the earthquake. This money was raised by the auxiliary among the townspeople and with a penny drive at the school."
Drummond Masons
The $50 donation of Ruby Lodge, A.F. & A.M., at Drummond was recorded as was that of H. T. Cumming, a past master of the organization, who personally gave $10. He said it is "our hearts desire that Helena and its good people will soon be able to go to their homes and be happy once more."
What probably was a 100 per cent membership contribution of $40.80 has been received from the Glacier Park Commercial club, with a letter that said:
"Attached please find check in the amount of $40.80. This is a donation from our community to be used as you deem fit to assist those afflicted by your recent calamity. Sorry the amount is not larger, but our community is small and most of us are not in good shape financially. Should you need further assistance, we shall be glad to help as far as our means permit."
The Augusta Commercial club and the Augusta American Legion post each forwarded $30 "To be used where it will do the most good in your present troubles," adding: "We feel deeply sorry for your people in this trouble and trust things will straighten themselves out soon. If there is any way we can be of service to you, please advise."
Personal contributions have come from Mrs. Annie F. Velie, a former Montana resident, $25; Frank B. Linderman of Somers, $25, the Local Activities club of Big Sandy, $10, and G. W. Covington of Santa Monica, Calif., former Helena resident $5.
[Helena Independent; November 15, 1935]


Governor Frank H. Cooney was advised by wire yesterday that the National Distillers Products corporation is contributing $1,000 for the relief of earthquake suffers here.
President Seton Porter of the liquor concern telegraphed the governor:
"On behalf of our subsidiary companies doing business with the state of Montana, and in a spirit of genuine sympathy with the people of Montana, I have this day instructed the Chase National Bank to telegraph you through the First National Bank and Trust company of Helena for use of your earthquake relief committee $1,000."
Governor Cooney replied: "Let me assure you of Montana's deepest appreciation of generous donation announced in your wire today. Helena people are making splendid progress in heroic work of rehabilitation, and your gift and expression of sympathy inspire them to greater efforts."
[Helena Independent; November 15, 1935]


Approval of the manner in which City Engineer Oscar Baarson, ex-officio building inspector, has conducted and kept records of inspection of buildings after the recent earthquakes was voiced here Wednesday by C. D. Wales, Jr., of Los Angeles, who was chief building inspector at Long Beach, Calif., when the severe earthquake occurred there March 10, 1933.
Mr. Wales, widely known for his competency and his excellent work after the Long Beach temblor, is now district structural engineer for the Portland Cement association. He came here to study the Helena quake situation.
Mr. Wales said that the forms of reports now being used by City Engineer Baarson are virtually the same as those employed at the time of the Long Beach disaster and which proved most satisfactory.
"We found many people," Mr. Wales said in speaking of his Long Beach experience, "who were eager to capitalize on the disaster in order to break leases, collect insurance and all phases of 'rackets,' and found that our records, made by competent men, served to protect against this particular phase of activity."
Mr. Wales expressed surprise when informed that the Helena engineer has been able to obtain only four engineers to put out on inspection work. The size of the job here, he commented, calls for a larger force if it is to be completed satisfactorily and in a reasonable time.
[Helena Independent; November 15, 1935]

Building Activity Is Spurting With Each Day

Reconstruction activities and building inspections continued to grow apace yesterday as Helena's citizens pressed the repair of their buildings and dwellings and City Engineer Oscar Baarson pushed the job of examining damaged structures.
Since November 1, building permits have been issued in an amount exceeding $22,000 and the number of applications are increasing daily. In addition, there is work under way of probably an equal amount for which no permits have been applied to date.
Will Check
City Engineer Baarson plans to make a check on this work at an early date as the city building codes are strict in their requirement that permits be obtained before work is started. Because of the emergency and general conditions, the city engineer has purposely been lenient in this matter since the earthquakes. Once things are settled somewhat, however, he plans to enforce the ruling as thoroughly as possible.
Demolition work was likewise being pushed rapidly and the FERA organization, under the supervision of James H. Rowe of Butte, has its full force of men and trucks working overtime removing debris and tearing down dangerous structures. A number of large buildings are at present in the process of being partly or wholly razed and work is started on others each day.
Records Stolen
Will all this transpiring and with his force of four engineers being hard pressed to meet the demand for their services, another incident occurred late Thursday night or early Friday morning to plague the city engineer.
All reports of inspections made Thursday by the engineers assisting Mr. Baarson in determining the safety of structures damage by the recent quakes were stolen from his office in the Y.M.C.A. building.
Baarson recently moved his office to the second floor of the "Y" and has not had time to arrange his files so they can be checked accurately. Other reports were scattered about the office when Baarson reached there yesterday morning.
What motive prompted the theft is not known, as the reports are of no value to anyone else. The office door was not locked. The depredation may have been, Baarson suggested, a piece of spite work, but he is at a loss to know who could have held a grudge of that nature. Theft of the reports entails many re inspections.
[Helena Independent; November 16, 1935]


The Helena Gun club has offered the use of its building in Kenwood for a temporary school for district No. 2, Kessler school, it was announced yesterday.
Because of the earthquakes, many of the pupils have left the city so that the clubhouse will provide ample room for the grades of the school. The building is a low frame structure and has withstood the shocks without damage.
Seats are being placed in the building along with other school equipment and it is hoped that school will begin there next Monday.
[Helena Independent; November 16, 1935]


The Great Northern railway will rehabilitate its quake damaged station here in conformity with the most modern safety practices, and will let the work to Helena contractors, officials announced yesterday.
The station was damaged by the shocks of October 18 and 31.
Four Great Northern officials, E. E. Adams, district engineer form Seattle; C. N. Harris, district engineer and T. E. Coleman, master carpenter, of Great Falls, and T. D. McMahon, architect for the road at St. Paul, inspected the station and conferred with City Engineer Oscar Baarson on repairs and alterations to be made.
Four other officials, C. O. Jenks of St. Paul, vice president in charge of the operating department, and his assistant, D. J. Kerr; J. H. O'Neill of Seattle, general manager, and T. F. Dixon of Great Falls, superintendent of the Butte division, were here to make a personal inspection of the damaged station.
The big clock tower will be razed to the roof, the parapet walls lowered to six inches or one foot, and the walls of the baggage room and express room, which were cracked, will be rebuilt.
[Helena Independent; November 16, 1935]


Appreciation of what Postmaster Harry Hendricks did in outfitting a room for U.S. coast and geodetic survey representatives, who came here from San Francisco to set up the seismographs, is revealed in a letter which J. H. Hawley, acting director of the U.S.C. and G.S., sent to Postmaster General James A. Farley. The letter was sent on to Postmaster Hendricks by Mr. Farley.
"The excellent assistance and cooperation rendered by you to our representatives in obtaining instrumental records of the Helena earthquake after shocks is greatly appreciated by this office," Hawley advised Hendricks. "Our observer, Mr. Ulrich, reports that facilities supplied by you made it possible for him to stand by the instruments continuously and thus obtain records of shocks which might otherwise have been lost."
[Helena Independent; November 17, 1935]

To Provide Means To Issue Warrants In Emergency

An emergency earthquake fund ordinance, drafted by City Attorney John W. Mahan, will be presented to the city council this morning so that creditors of the city, including the national guard and engineering staff of the city engineer, may receive warrants.
City Attorney Mahan said last evening that the ordinance was drafted and in readiness for presentation. At a council meeting held last Thursday Mayor C. J. Bausch withdrew his objections to payment by the city of its earthquake emergency expenses and no opposition is expected from that quarter today.
Will Be Registered
On October 21 the council passed a resolution formerly declaring an emergency. The ordinance to be presented today simply will formally created a fund against which warrants may be drawn. The warrants will be registered by the city treasurer and will bear 6 per cent interest. The council will make a special levy in formulating next year's budget to meet the earthquake expenses.
Authority to create such a fund is authorized by statute in case of a calamity such as an earthquake. As the general and administrative expenses of a municipality are limited to 15 mills, it is necessary to create a special levy. If this was not possible, it would work tremendous hardships on present funds, operating under a budget, to meet the expenses.
Engineering Needs
As Helena is now busy with its great task of reconstruction and the city is rapidly getting back on its feet after the disastrous quakes, it is apparent that the office of the city engineer will require an increased force for several months to take care of its vital work of inspecting buildings and approving reconstruction and rebuilding. Most of this expense, with others incidental to the earthquakes, must be born by the city under the provisions of the emergency earthquake fund ordinance to be presented today. The FERA is paying four inspectors but more are needed by the city engineer.
It is estimated that the emergency expenditures incurred to date amount to a little more than $3,000 and that the total will be less than $8,000. To carry on the activities of the city engineer's office it is estimated that about $5,000 will be needed during the ensuing months. The chief item incurred up to the present is that for payment of the national guardsmen.
City Engineer Oscar Baarson 's claims are for routine expenses in connection with the inspection of buildings and for the salary of one engineer he was permitted to employ after October 18. They amount to a comparatively small sum, around $200.
Another important matter will be presented at today's council meeting when the ordinance providing for the creation of a public safety committee will come up for second reading. This ordinance, drafted by the city attorney, clarifies and broadens existing condemnation proceedings.
[Helena Independent; November 18, 1935]


Unemployment is no problem in Helena at the present time as this city goes about its huge rehabilitation task, nor will it be during the coming winter and spring, according to indications. If there is any resident of the city desirous of work who is not now employed, officials are not aware of the fact.
It is estimated that nearly 800 men are now engaged in rehabilitation work. The FERA has nearly 500 laborers engaged in the work of erasing the physical damage done to the city and it is believed that at least 250 skilled craftsmen and laborers are employed on rebuilding projects.
Import Some
The exact number engaged in the latter program cannot be accurately determined as many workers have come in from the outside. While the city has been able to supply its own demand for common labor, it has been necessary to import numerous workers in the skilled classifications to meet requirements. This is especially true of bricklayers and masons, cement workers and allied crafts, and to a lesser degree carpenters.
The demand for these types of labor will steadily increase during the next few months, it is expected as repair work and new construction gets under way. Already building projects, including the $200,000 new housing project, totaling hundreds of thousands of dollars are in the making and the city promises to take on the aspect of a boom center next spring and summer.
Big Program
Rebuilding of the damaged school buildings and other public, semi-public and charitable institutions alone will represent an expenditure approaching $1,000,000, it is estimated. It is probable that St. John's hospital will erect a new building and several other Catholic institutions may be almost completely rebuilt. St. Paul's Methodist church is planning on building a new structure and will do so if satisfactory financial arrangements can be made. Various other large projects are contemplated and if all go through, Helena in 1936 will experience the greatest building activity in history.
So great has been the press of the rehabilitation work, that practically nothing has been done yet on the dozen or more Works Progress administration projects approved for this city and county. These, however, are expected to get under way as the present work proceeds toward completion. There will be plenty of work to take up any slack in employment during the next year, authorities say.
To Break Record
As an indication of what is coming, building permits for November already total nearly $25,000, with a large amount of work in progress for which permits have not yet been taken out. It is considered certain that the month will establish a new all-time record for construction work. November is usually one of the slack months for building activities.
[Helena Independent; November 18, 1935]


Definite action toward the inauguration of the Helena Development company's $200,000 house building project is expected this evening, if the meeting of the sponsors is held as planned.
Tonight's meeting is dependent upon the completion of the plans for three types of houses for submission to the Helena business men who have subscribed to the project, Chairman A. T. Hibbard of the executive committee, said yesterday.
Work Sunday
Architects of Federal Housing administration worked all day yesterday to get the plans and drawings in shape and hoped to complete them this afternoon. If this is accomplished, the meeting will be held as scheduled. Otherwise it will be postponed until Tuesday evening.
The directors of the Helena Development company desires to present the detailed plans and drawings of the types of houses proposed to be erected, in order that the subscribers may see and understand exactly what is planned. Of the three types being prepared at the present time, two are for four-room dwellings and one is a five-room project. It is likely that one or two more types will be added to provide more variety in design. No two houses exactly alike will be erected in the same neighborhood.
All steps taken up to the present time will be submitted to the board of directors and, if approved, action will be taken immediately for final organization of the company and filing of the articles of incorporation.
The concern has the assurance of the Federal Housing administration that that agency will insure the project for a loan, and under this condition the RFC has agreed to purchase up to $200,000 worth of bonds. The company is ready to start building as soon as the organization is perfected and the bonds can be issued.
[Helena Independent; November 18, 1935]

* * * * * * * * *
Courthouse Clock To Ring No More

The courthouse clock is no more. The "highboy" of Helena which lifted its sad face to the four winds, each telling a different story of the time, is to be permanently done away with.
After fifty years of faithful service, during which time at least one face always told the correct time, the old clock gave up the battle and fell a prey to the earthquake bugaboo. It was ordered removed along with all the heavy chimneys and fancy brownstone work which constituted hazards to the building and the public.
When the courthouse building was erected in 1885, the crowning touch of glory to the massive stone structure, was the tower and clock on the north face of the building over the front door. Because of the manner in which the building was situated in its full block of grass, flower beds and walks and the near proximity of Broadway to the rear, the front door was often regarded as the back and the back door as the front and the side door on the east, through which prisoners were brought from the courtroom to the jail, as the door of sorrow.
Saturday morning the south face of the clock, which lifted up its hands to the noonday sun and asked for prompt payment of all tax obligations, was taken down by workmen who tenderly removed it from the tower and consigned it to the land of forgotten things. And so today the face on the north which says 6:15 and the face on the east which says 8:32 and the face on the west which says nothing, will be retired from public life.
[Helena Independent; November 18, 1935]


A grim reminder of the major earth shocks of October 18 and 31 aroused a sleepy and unsuspecting Helena at 8:41 o'clock yesterday morning but left its mark on only a few already damaged buildings. The main shock, lightened by a slight break half way through it, lasted fully 15 seconds.
A quick check revealed little or no new damage, but bulging walls on several badly wrecked buildings were partially shaken down or cracked.
At the same time reports from the outside indicated that the quake was felt in an area nearly 500 miles in extent and was the heaviest yet recorded at many of these points. It was particularly strong at Great Falls, where some damage was reported done, according to word received here by long distance telephone from residents of the Electric city.
Felt Sharply
At Butte also it was reported to be the heaviest yet felt and it was pronounced at Missoula, Kalispell, Deer Lodge and other places. The duration of the shake at Great Falls was declared to be 10 seconds.
Bozeman reported the shock as light, but in Livingston window panes were broken and it was reported to be moderate in Billings. At Townsend, goods were knocked from the shelves of stores but little real damage was done.
The shock, described as the fourth heaviest in the present series, was approximately as long as that of October 12 which caused the first damage in Helena and was nearly as long as the October 31 shake which added the final touches to the damage done on October 18. However, its intensity was not so great and it is believed that this fact is all that prevented another heavy toll in property loss.
More brick were shaken down from the damaged wing of the new high school building but this occasioned no damage as the section must be almost entirely taken down when it is rebuilt.
In the South Main street section, the front or rear walls of several old buildings were so badly loosened that it was necessary to pull sections of them down. State Fire Marshal Arthur Parsons superintended some of this work and personally pushed down the gable of the old building that formerly housed the Canton Noodle parlors. Areas of danger on South Main street were again roped off.
The front wall of the Weggenman market on State street, loosened and bulged by the previous quakes, had a narrow section knocked out of the fire wall and was rendered so dangerous that it was roped off to be torn down.
At Intermountain
Additional damage was reported to Intermountain Union college buildings, which suffered severely on October 18 and 31, but the loss was considered light since it consisted chiefly of loose brick work that would have had to come down anyway. More plaster was shaken down as was the case in many buildings and homes in the city. The new loss is largely to plaster and chimneys, a survey indicated. Buildings which had been repaired since October 31 appeared to have come through the Thanksgiving day episode practically untouched. A considerable amount of stone was shaken down at the courthouse.
Donald Bean of the Fidelity and Deposit Insurance company, after a check of earthquake insured properties this morning, said he found little damage of a serious nature. More chimneys were knocked down, especially in the Sixth ward, and some plaster fell. Outside of that substantial buildings were unhurt.
At the Bristol hotel annex, a part of the parapet wall on the north side fell into the street and the remainder was in such a dangerous condition that at 10 o'clock preparations to take it down were under way.
Street Closed
Part of Park avenue was closed to all traffic because of the dangerous condition of the front wall of the Walker paint shop at 11 North Park.
The sidewalk in front of the old Cosmopolitan hotel on South Main was also roped off. One story of this four-story structure has already been removed, but the remainder of the story below was seriously loosened by this morning's shake.
City Engineer Oscar Baarson, engaged in a hasty inspection, reported further damage at the Hawthorne school and said that a number of chimneys in various parts of the city had been shaken down.
Police said they had been informed that an old brick structure on Jefferson street had partially fallen. It had been in poor condition since the temblors of last month.
East Helena
At East Helena the shake was felt quite severely, according to reports of residents there.
However, no particular damage resulted, it was asserted, except at the public school where one of the upper walls bulged out several inches. Inasmuch as it is planned to remove the upper story, the damage is of no consequence.
At the Smelter city the quake was of about 10 seconds duration, and of the "slow motion" variety.
Helena's earthquake damage total will easily reach $5,000,000 and probably will exceed that figure, City Engineer Baarson estimates now in the light of the data gathered in the course of inspections by his staff of engineers. Owners of many of the downtown business and office buildings, which apparently had escaped damage, have found repairs necessary, in amounts ranging from $100 to several times that figure. The total of damage to the homes in the city probably will ever be known accurately.
Little Confusion
While the tremor turned the city out at the time, it occasioned less excitement and confusion than any of the three previous heavy shocks. People drove hurriedly about the city in cars for two or three hours to determine if any new damage had been done. The force of the quake was sufficient to arouse fears temporarily but these were soon allayed.
Worshipers attended church services in goodly numbers, undaunted by the shaking they received less than three hours before. A well filled auditorium was reported for the union services held at the First Presbyterian church and the other institutions that held services of their own announced excellent turnouts.
The Montana State college seismograph showed the disturbance this morning about equal in intensity to the jolt of October 12, but not nearly as severe as the quakes of October 18 and 31, Dr. Eric Therkelson said.
The machine indicated there were recurring vibrations over a period of one minute, he said, but failed to record evidence that the direction or epicenter was different from that of previous shocks.
[Helena Independent; November 29, 1935]


A movement to properly express the appreciation of Helena to the many surrounding communities, which have aided the Capital city with substantial financial contributions in its hour of need, is under way, it developed last night.
Thousands of dollars have been sent to the Red Cross and other local organizations to be used in assisting those who have suffered heavily from the earthquakes since October 18, and while this city has been self-reliant and anxious to meet it own problems, these contributions have lightened the burden of many individuals which might have proven too great for the city to carry, despite its willingness of spirit.
Many On List
Among the neighboring cities which have sent generous donations for the relief of Helena's quake suffers are Kalispell, Fort Benton, Bozeman, Miles City, Chouteau, Missoula, Havre, Great Falls, Manhattan and numerous others which are not at present of record here because their contributions were sent directly to Red Cross headquarters at St. Louis.
The movement to express adequate appreciation of this brotherly spirit of outside Montana cities which have sympathized with Helena in her present disaster was instituted by a small group of citizens at a dinner last evening. The group included E. G Toomey, Helena attorney, Mrs. Toomey, Dr. and Mrs. John G. Thompson and Dr. and Mrs. Otto G. Klein. The earthquakes were naturally a leading topic of conversation and it was brought out that to the present time that no official expression of appreciation had been made by the city administration for the kindnesses extended by outside communities.
City Fortunate
After talking it over they came to the conclusion that such an expression should be made formally through the newspapers of Helena. They expressed the belief that the entire city would subscribe to this suggestion.
Dr. Thompson likewise pointed out that while Helena has suffered severely it has much to be thankful for, and every reason to look to the future and be optimistic. Dr. and Mrs. Thompson recently returned from Europe and were in London when the major tremor of October 18 came.
"Why Helena is fortunate in many respects," Dr. Thompson said. "When we were in London and were discussing the shocks here with some friends we were informed that a small town in the northern part of England has experienced on an average of one earthquake a day for many years.
'This may sound like a fairy tale to some people but I investigated and found it was true. The people there had long since become accustomed to the situation and it is now merely a routine occurrence. They think nothing of it at all."
New Zealand, Too
The village Dr. Thompson referred to is Workington, St. Beeshead, in the mountain near the border between England and Scotland. Dr. Thompson also recalled that he met two doctors from New Zealand in Vienna, where he did research work in surgery, who told him that earthquakes were such a common occurrence in their section of the country that most of the buildings were limited to one story. In cases where two-story buildings, the limit, were permitted, the first story had to be of very heavy brick or masonry construction and the second story of light frame, so that it would not fall through if shaken down.
"When we consider these things," Dr. Thompson said, "Helena really is fortunate and has plenty to be thankful for." The people here have the right spirit and the city will come back strong without question."
These sentiments were emphasized by Mr. Toomey who was particularly desirous that the city "take time out" to convey its thanks for the splendid and wholly voluntary response of neighboring cities anxious to be of assistance to a stricken community.
[Helena Independent; November 30, 1935]

Railway Companies To Provide Cars At No Charge

Coming to Helena's aid again, the Northern Pacific and Great Northern Railway companies yesterday announced they would furnish eight or ten coaches each to be used here for high school classrooms at no cost to the residents of the city.
This offer was announced by T. A. Marlow, a director of the G. N. and M. S. Gunn, attorney for the N. P., each of whom wired his company concerning the coaches.
Wires received from W. P. Kenney, president of the G. N., and Charles Donneley, president of the N. P., stated that each company would gladly furnish eight to ten coaches, at no charge, to be used as classrooms for the high school students.
Pending Barracks
These coaches may be used by the school board until temporary barracks have been constructed for the high school classes. They could be hooked up to the companies' power plants, thus avoiding the need of installing lighting and heating equipment.
It has been announced that a special meeting of the school board will be called by Chairman E. M. Hall early next week for consideration of the offer, and the forming of plans in the event the offer is accepted.
Members of the school board and instructors at the high school were enthusiastic over the offer, and several stated that school could be resumed within two weeks by this method.
[Helena Independent; November 30, 1935]


Great Falls, Nov. 29--The earthquake shock was distinctly felt in all sections of Great Falls about 7:40 Thursday morning, many describing it as about second in intensity among those which have visited this city in the last few weeks.
Many persons who had not yet arisen said that their beds moved in a manner to leave no doubt in their minds at the time that they were experiencing another temblor.
While it was generally understood today that not more than trifling damage had been done here by this morning's visitation, Mrs. D. A. McLeod reported that her family's brick house at 3500 Fourth avenue north showed plainly afterward the effects of the shock.
"The exterior brick walls about the house are cracked in many places," said Mrs. McLeod." "Old cracks made by a heavy shock several weeks ago were widened and new ones were made. Some of the widened fissures will almost admit an adult's hand.
"In addition to the damage to the outside walls, we discovered that the quake made cracks in every direction in the concrete floor of the basement. There were similar results in a cement driveway alongside the house.
"I fear that another shock of like intensity would just about make a wreck of our home, added to the damage already done and the weakening of the house which has resulted."
[Helena Independent; November 30, 1935]


Only a little more than $26,000 of the $100,000 of federal funds allocated to the FERA for earthquake rehabilitation work in Helena was expended for demolition work and removal of debris, a tabulated report issued yesterday revealed. Most of the balance was spent in general rehabilitation work in behalf of public, semi-public and charitable institutions without resources, it was disclosed.
The statement was prepared by Tom McCabe of the county relief office, who has been in charge of rehabilitation activities. It gives a complete breakdown of the expenditures of federal funds in the earthquake emergency. It was submitted to the city council yesterday morning.
Little Left
The report showed that on November 25, the date of tabulation, approximately $26,000 remained in the fund but the payroll and expenditures of the last week probably will reduce this to less than $20,000, all of which is allocated to projects under way.
Before actual authorization for the $100,000 emergency grant was received here from Washington, J. H. Rowe of Butte, personal representative of Frank Walker as assistant to the president, and F. H. Marvin, state director of the FERA, conferred and tentatively made the following expenditure allocations.
St. John's hospital, for conditioning the unfinished Montana Children's home hospital for use, $25,000; St. Joseph's Orphans' home, $16,300; House of the Good Shepherd, $12,700; clearing up debris, $12,500; demolition and propping, $10,000; Florence Crittenton home, $6,630; St. Peter's hospital, for finishing and providing additional beds on the third floor, $5,500; general relief, $5,000; grade school repairs, $5,000; engineering and administration, $5,000; Montana Deaconess school, $4,800; industrial accident board premiums, $4500; special patrol, $2,500; Montana Children's home, $1,500; Montana Children's home in the Helena valley, $1,000.
Was Revised
These tentative allocations totaled $117,930, but when authorization for creation of the FERA emergency earthquake fund was actually received it called for only $100,000. Consequently the latter figure is taken as the real basis for the November 25 report. It is hoped that an additional grant, sufficient at least to carry out the original allocation program, will be received. Additional money is also needed to finish some of the demolition projects already started.
Although only $12,500 at first was allocated for clearing up debris, the report shows that $17,051.12 had been expended for that purpose up to November 25, or an "overdraft" of $4551.12. On the St. John's hospital project at the children's home, $10,592.31 had been paid out, and for demolition and propping, $9,136.35.
Other actual expenditures were:
House of the Good Shepherd, $8,262.23; St. Joseph's Orphans' home, $8,989.57; St. Peter's hospital, $3,759.68; grade school repairs, $3,539.94; Florence Crittenton home, $3,986.11; engineering and administration, $2,004.49; general relief, $1,190.47; industrial accident board premiums, $1,176.67; Montana Children's home in the valley, $656.57; Montana Children's home supplies, $324.78; Montana Deaconess school, $1,182.81; special patrol, $500.
Today when all payrolls have been checked and all bills approved, the FERA will issue a supplementary report, it was said today, showing the exact unexpended balance of the $100,000 emergency fund.
[Helena Independent; December 1, 1935]


Residents who have been anxiously waiting to know what is to be done about the school, will be relieved to know that the government engineer found the lower floor of the building to be in good condition. After the board meeting Tuesday evening, workmen were employed at once to tear down all ceiling plaster so that its weight, in case of more quakes, will not bulge the new steel ceilings to be put in all the rooms. All loose outside bricks are being removed and a six-foot fence erected around those portions of the building where any brick might fall and injure the children. Exits will be determined later. Mr. Totten, president of the board, expects the building to be ready for use by the first of the year.
[Helena Independent; December 1, 1935]


Determined to demonstrate that a brick home can be made as earthquake resistant as any other type of construction, Jack Higgins of 730 North Benton avenue is rebuilding his dwelling and is employing a new method of construction that is attracting wide spread interest and attention from architects, engineers and builders.
Mr Higgins' home was brick veneer and the quake of October 31 loosened it so badly that he had all of the old brick stripped off. These were of smooth sandstone finish and he discarded them, purchasing new rough texture, pierced brick from the Western Clay Manufacturing company.
The contract for rebuilding was given to Mickey Cochrane and an unique type of construction is being used that will provide what will be the same as a reinforced concrete building.
The frame of the dwelling was first covered with 'Steel-Tex' for brick veneer, a Johns-Manville product. This product, entirely new in Helena, is a welded wire reinforcing with a waterproof paper backing. It is nailed to the sheeting with a special furring nail which presses the paper backing tight to the sheeting but holds the welded wire three-eighths of an inch from the structure. It is made in rolls 110 feet long, making it possible to completely surround the ordinary dwelling with one continuous band. The nails are placed on 12-inch centers and permit of an inch and a half of penetration.
Filled In
The brick are then laid in rich cement mortar, the courses being held away from the reinforcing one inch. As the work progresses at regular intervals the space between the brick and the paper backing is filled in with a rich cement grout. In this manner the welded wire is imbedded in the grout which adheres to the entire brick surface, making what is known as a monolithic job.
During the past two days the new construction has been inspected by a number of engineers and builders. Oscar Baarson, city engineer, inspected the work yesterday and stated he was much impressed with it. He also said it was as highly quake resistant as could be made.
The work is well along and both Mr. Higgins and the contractor will be pleased to have it examined by anyone interested.
[Helena Independent; December 1, 1935]

From Hopkins
Government Allocates Additional Sum, Is Word

Helena has been allotted an additional $50,000 for emergency earthquake relief work, according to a telegram received here last night from Aubrey Williams of Washington, D. C., chief assistant to Harry L. Hopkins, federal emergency relief administrator.
The message was received by Frank F. Kelsey, former state senator and a member of the Montana Relief commission. The city has already received $100,000, of which less than $20,000 remain.
While F. H. Marvin, ERA director for Montana, could not be located last night for a statement, it was believed in official circles that the work of demolishing dangerous buildings, stopped more than a week ago when the sum allocated for this purpose became exhausted, could be started immediately.
Is Imperative
Completion of this important job is regarded as most imperative by the Helena Emergency Reconstruction committee, especially in view of the fact that Thanksgiving Day shock further loosened weakened and damaged buildings, creating new hazards to human life. It has become apparent to City Engineer Oscar Baarson during the last two or three days that several more buildings were so damaged by the last quake that they will have to be taken at least partially down.
There was still a considerable amount of demolition to be done when lack of funds stopped work 10 days ago and it was necessary to leave the job half completed on a number of buildings, especially several in the south Main street section where the damage was heavy. It has been necessary to keep many of these roped off since that time to guard against possible loss of life.
Asked $100,000
In a number of other cases, buildings had been designated either for removal of one or two stories, or for complete demolition but the work was not started.
Helena officials had requested a second allotment of $100,000 to clean up the rehabilitation job, and they still have hopes of obtaining $50,000 more if yesterday's allotment proves insufficient.
S. V. Stewart, chairman of the Emergency Reconstruction committee, expressed deep gratification last night when informed of the new allocation.
"It will be a tremendous help," he said "for the money was needed desperately. I do not know whether $50,000 will be enough to accomplish all of the work that should be done, but it will go a long way and will be a lifesaver."
Rowe May Come
A report prepared by the county FERA office revealed that up to November 25, only about $26,000 had been expended in demolishing dangerous structures and clearing away debris. The remainder is being used for rehabilitation of public and semi public institutions in the city. It is believed that a considerable portion of the $50,000 may be available for continuation of this work.
It was also believed likely last night that James H. Rowe of Butte, who was sent here as the personal representative of Frank C. Walker, head of the National Emergency Council, after the October 18 earthquake to survey the situation and supervise federal relief in the stricken city, would return to Helena to direct the resumption of work. Mr. Rowe supervised the big cleanup campaign which at its peak found 500 men and 50 trucks employed in the gigantic task of removing the earthquake scars.
Many Helped
In addition, the federal funds have proven to be a saving factor for such institutions as the Montana Deaconess school, the St. John's hospital, the House of the Good Shepherd, the Florence Crittenton home, the Montana Children's Home and Hospital, most of which suffered severe damage and were without resources to rehabilitate.
The federal funds also made it possible for City Engineer Baarson to conduct his inspection operations and for the city to provide adequate police and patrol service at critical times when it appeared that a collapse was imminent, through the city's failure to provide funds for these purposes.
[Helena Independent; December 2, 1935]


Through its general agent, Charles H. Reifenrath, Jr., with offices in the Power block, the North American Accident Insurance company is announcing a new limited accident policy, a provision of which covers "death or injury by the collapse of a building."
With the continuation of earthquakes in Helena there has been a tremendous demand for such a coverage and the fact that it may be written for any person between the ages of 10 and 69 inclusive at the low cost of $2 per year makes it an attractive policy, the general agent points out.
Mr. Reifenrath also announces the appointment of Arthur Fabian, Ray Higgins, Maurice E. Sanford and Joseph R. Magill as agents for the North American.
[Helena Independent; December 2, 1935]


School on wheels will be inaugurated by the Helena high school students within the next 10 days, when 18 coaches, furnished free of charge by the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railway companies, will be placed on tracks to be laid on Lyndale avenue between the 800 and 1,000 blocks.
The offer of the railway companies to each furnish the school board with nine coaches was accepted at a special meeting of the school board held last night. The vote to accept the offer was unanimous.
The cars will be placed on two sets of tracks, each row being nine cars long. Rails and ties for the tracks are to be furnished free of charge by the railway companies, the school board paying only for the labor to lay the tracks. Supervisors for the track-laying will also be furnished by the railway companies.
Commissioner of Public Safety Amos Shellady yesterday stated that Lyndale avenue will be closed to traffic in the area occupied by the cars.
L. S. Hazzard, vice president of the school board, was appointed as a committee of one to supervise the building of lavatories and the installation of necessary plumbing and the connection of the lighting system in the cars to the power lines.
Each car is equipped with an individual steam heating plant, and the railway companies have arranged to provide as much of the special hard coal, which is used in that type of plant, as is necessary until the school board can order and receive a supply.
The school board shall be responsible for any damage done to the cars, or any injury done to the students while attending school in them.
No limit was set by the railway companies as to the length of time the coaches may be used, but, it was said, they probably will be used for the remainder of the school year.
It was thought at first to place the coaches in the yards of one of the railway companies, but the hazards attached to such a plan caused it to be discouraged by the companies.
May Postpone Repairs
A motion was made at the meeting to discontinue the repair work now being carried on on the grade schools in the city, and to erect barracks to be used temporarily.
This motion was made when it was announced that there were not sufficient funds available at present to repair all the schools. Architect Norman DeKay stated the Hawthorne school had received additional damages by the earthquake of November 28.
Much discussion was held on the subject, with part of the board members favoring the continuance of school in the buildings after they had been repaired, and part of the members in favor of using barracks.
Plans for making the grade schools earthquake resistant were received yesterday from H. J. Brunier, construction engineer of San Francisco, and were displayed by Norman DeKay. Final recommendations have not yet been received, however.
With the board seemingly deadlocked at this point, Chairman E. M. Hall called the meeting to an end, and it was decided to halt repair work now being done on the schools until the board considers the matter more thoroughly.
Definite action was postponed for 10 days, when the group will meet again to vote on the question.
[Helena Independent; December 3, 1935]

Five For $1,000 Are Given Approval By Agency

Five applications totaling $11,000 to be used for rehabilitation work in Helena yesterday were approved by the Capital City Rehabilitation corporation, it was announced by Norman Winestine, president.
"Yesterday's approved loans bring the total now approved by the corporation to 12," Mr. Winestine said, "and considering the large number of inquiries we have been receiving lately, we expect to pass upon many more applications within the next few weeks."
Several of the applications, which have been approved by the Capital City Rehabilitation corporation and the local agency of the Reconstruction Finance corporation, have been approved by the headquarters of the RFC at Washington, D. C., and telegraphic confirmation of their approval has been received by the local body.
Need Appraisal
"To save time and expedite the procedure of securing loans through this body," Mr. Winestine stated, "prospective applicants should obtain the services of a contractor and have the cost of the work necessary on their properties appraised before securing an application."
When this has been done, application blanks can be obtained at the Helena agency of the RFC at 26 Edwards street. The project is then appraised by the RFC engineer.
[Helena Independent; December 3, 1935]


Dillon, Dec. 2--With this section of Montana definitely established as an earthquake sector, plans of the new federal building now under construction here have been changed by the government. Federal funds will take care of the additional expense incurred in making the building earthquake-proof.
[Helena Independent; December 3, 1935]


Every dollar expended from now on by the federal government in earthquake relief work in Helena, should be on carefully planned and approved projects.
If we have $50,000 more to use in this very necessary work, it should be allocated only after a careful study of the situation is made. The local emergency relief committee, headed by former Governor S. V. Stewart, should be permitted, even requested, by the federal men in charge, to make up the list of projects and the whole submitted to a joint meeting of the federal men in charge and the local committeemen.
In this way no favoritism for any particular institution or institutions, can creep into the expenditures, and every interest will thus get a square deal and should be satisfied--will have to be satisfied and should be thankful for this assistance.
The money expended thus far has been put to the very best uses. There is a lot of loose talk about "$100,000 having been spent for cleaning up the city." People have not stopped to read the list of these appropriations and expenditures. A study of them will demonstrate that James H. Rowe of Butte, who came to Helena to supervise this work, did not only effective work, but did it promptly, with a minimum of waste. It should be remembered that Mr. Rowe had no cooperation whatever from the city administration, and he had to be guided by what he saw of the needs and the representations made to him by the Emergency Relief Commission.
It is not true that $100,000 was spent for cleaning up and hauling away tons of brick and stone. Only a very small amount of the fund used in Helena was spent for this purpose, but enough was used to get the work done and our streets would still have been shambles had not Mr. Rowe swept down on the city with his little army of workers.
The total amount expended for this cleaning was around $17,051. Engineering and administrative expenses paid out of federal funds amount to only $2,004. Cheap enough--very economically handled, considering the mess, the weather and the hours, days nights and Sundays, devoted to this difficult job.
Looking over the list of expenditures, it must be evident to every citizen that the funds were fairly distributed. The institutions assisted were:
The Deaconess home; the Florence Crittenden home; the House of the Good Shepherd; the Montana Children's home; the St. Joseph's Orphanage, and the Montana Children's home in the valley, and St. Peter's Hospital.
As a result of this planned work, the Florence Crittenden home will soon be ready for occupancy, better and stronger than ever; work is going forward on the St. Joseph's orphanage, the Children's home and the House of the Good Shepherd. The Deaconess home in the valley is probably beyond repair. The main building of this institution was an architectural monstrosity when it was first built; the Brother Van memorial at this institution was never completed and probably never should be unless the denomination fostering it gets a big windfall and can erect a new building and repair the Brother Van building. It is a waste of money to spend anything on the main building.
The Independent has the utmost confidence in the federal as well as the local men handling the job of repairing these buildings and making them safe for occupancy. It only insists now that the excitement of the earthquake period has died down to a point where the work can be carefully planned, that every dollar should be systematically expended, and only those projects accepted which are worthy and necessary. The old city hall should be wrecked and hauled away; the Bryant school should be leveled to the ground and the old materials removed--other similar projects will be readily recognized by those in charge of the work.

Livingston invited Helena people to come down to that city and find safety from earthquake shocks. Now those who accepted, are returning to the old home town for the holidays--they prefer our own kind of shocks.
[Helena Independent; December 3, 1935]

48 Requests Totaling $4,106 Approved Last Night

With 103 applications for rehabilitation grants remaining to be acted upon, the awards committee of the Lewis and Clark chapter of the Red Cross last night reviewed 48 cases and awarded $4,106 to be used in repairing and rebuilding Helena homes damaged by earthquakes.
The 363 cases now closed by the committee bring the total amount granted thus far to home owners here to $69,300.65, it was announced by Albert Evans, director of disaster relief for the Red Cross.
"We expect to act upon the remaining 55 cases by the end of this week," Mr. Evans stated, "and the total sum of all the grants will probably reach the $80,000 mark, although the cases passed at last night's meeting averaged less per case than those previously passed upon.
Little Increase
"Only two applications have been received for additional grants to take care of damage caused by the shock of November 28, and it is now doubtful that damage caused by that shock will increase the total amount of our grants by more than $1,000.
"Most of the minor repair jobs for which we have granted funds have been already competed, and should the weather continue for a short time as it is at the present, many of the larger projects will be finished to such an extent that the work can be carried on during the winter.
"In the event that outside work is halted by inclement weather, funds granted to families for rehabilitation work will be held in security for the contractors selected by the families, and will be paid to them whenever the work is completed."
Need No Aid
The number of cases closed without assistance is now around the hundred mark. The major portion of these cases were ones where the application for aid had been made by a friend of the family named in the request, or by families who decided after they had applied for aid that they could finance their repair work themselves.
Many of the families whose names had been suggested as applicants for aid did not need Red Cross help.
[Helena Independent; December 4, 1935]


To accommodate some of the children who were placed out in homes temporarily during the earthquake emergency, the Montana Children's home and hospital has been making alterations at the valley home for boys and the work is now nearing completion, it was announced yesterday by Milo F. Dean, superintendent.
Following the shock of October 31, the organization turned its receiving home and new hospital building on Helena avenue over to St. John's hospital which was forced to evacuate its plant because of hazardous condition of the building. The Helena units have been used exclusively as quarters for girls and infants in the care of the institution.
Being Refinished
The children's home hospital had not been finished and the government is providing funds to put it in shape. As a result it was necessary to find new quarters for many children being cared for by the home. A number of the older children were transferred to the boys' home in the valley. To accommodate them it has been necessary to convert the garage and the basement playroom into dormitories for the boys. This work will soon be finished.
Superintendent Dean emphasized the fact that present arrangement is only temporary and that the uptown units will be reclaimed by the Montana Children's home as soon as the emergency has passed and St. John's hospital is able to provide quarters of its own. When this is done, the institution will be able to expand its work by reason of larger quarters, due to the action of the government in finishing the new hospital building.
[Helena Independent; December 4, 1935]


David Hilger, librarian for the state historical society, yesterday recalled an earthquake that occurred here in 1872, not so destructive as those that jolted the Capital city in October.
Hilger said that on the day of the quake 63 years ago, he and some other boys were playing in Dry Gulch, now called Davis street, when they felt the ground shake. They did not realize it was an earthquake until their parents told them when they returned to their homes.
Bishop Daniel W. Tuttle, in his book "Reminiscences of a Missionary Bishop," tells of a still earlier earthquake here, which occurred on May 22, 1868. He and his family, at breakfast, felt the shock and heard a rumble but did not learn until later that it was an earthquake. At midnight there was a second tremor, the bishop's book set forth.
[Helena Independent; December 4, 1935]


A photostatic copy of the seismograph tape on which was recorded the earthquake of November 28 shows the duration of the quake to be 12 seconds, it was stated yesterday by W. E. Maughan, chief meteorologist of the Helena weather bureau.
The copy of the tape was returned yesterday by Franklin P. Ulrich, chief of the California seismograph machine here.
Although the epicenter of the quake was not mentioned, Mr. Ulrich showed that the east-west movement of the shock was the predominating force. The north-south movement was slightly less intense than the east-west force, but was more pronounced than the vertical movement.
Two Sharp Ones
Starting at 7:41 a.m., the quake was recorded on the tape as strong for about three seconds. Then followed minor vibrations for nine seconds, after which the shock again attained violent force for about three seconds.
The intensity of the quake for the first and last three second periods was nearly as strong as the shock of October 31.
Mr. Maughan plans to have copies of the tape made, and will perhaps place them in the lobby of the federal building as the many phone calls and personal visits to the office each day seriously interfere with the work being carried on there.
[Helena Independent; December 5, 1935]


An authentic copy of the recordings of the seismograph at the Helena federal building for the earth tremors the morning of Thursday, November 28, is being displayed in the show windows of Starz Pharmacy. The instrument was set off at 7:41 Thanksgiving morning, and after a short tremor, there was a pause, and then another was recorded. This was the first record to be taken since the machine was permanently located in the federal building, under the supervision of W. E. Maughan, meteorologist for the weather bureau. Helena's seismograph was formerly at Golden Gate park in San Francisco. Through the efforts of Postmaster Harry Hendricks and U. S. Senator James E. Murray, the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey consented to have it remain here permanently.
[Helena Independent; December 5, 1935]


Washington, Dec.12--(AP)--Public Works Administrator Ickes today announced an allotment of $10,300 to the coast and geodetic survey of the commerce department for earthquake studies in Montana.
Officials of the coast geodetic survey said they had not been officially advised of the allotment but had completed plans for the project.
They said the allocation would provide funds for the study of actual earth movements during earthquakes. The principal objective in securing this knowledge is to plan construction of bridges, buildings, dams and other structures so they will be able to withstand stress occasioned by earthquakes.
Automatic instruments will be built and installed at strategic points, yet to be selected, throughout the state.
[Helena Independent; December 13, 1935]


After a week of intensive preparation, Helena's unique "high school on wheels" is ready to open and classes will resume work at 8:15 o'clock this morning after a suspension of exactly two months.
Helena's new high school building was badly damaged by the earthquake that struck here October 18 and neither high school nor grade school classes have been held since that time.
Although the "school on wheels" consists of half as many coaches as there are class rooms in the high school building, Superintendent Evans said that he expects a fairly good year for the students, under the prevailing conditions. Twenty-one coaches have been spotted on tracks, laid a short distance north of the high school, for class rooms, laboratories and offices.
Classes will start at 8:15 a.m. and continue until 4:45 p.m., Evans said, with classes to last 100 minutes. The periods will be split up into two groups, A and B, to meet on alternate days throughout the week. School will last until the middle of June, Evans said.
Superintendent Evans expects the high school to be ready for occupancy next fall, providing $175,000 of federal funds, that have been asked for to reconstruct the building and make it earthquake proof, are granted. Grade school classes are expected to resume work shortly after the first of the year.
[Helena Independent; December 15, 1935]


Shivering Helena hoped for a spring song, but mother nature gave another rendition of "stormy weather" with sharp earth shocks as an incidental effect in the weather symphony.
A 4-second tremor at 1:39 a.m. and a 1-second quiver at 1:53 boosted the total number of shocks felt here since last October's major earthquakes to 1,816, the weather bureau reported.
Helena's temperature of 12 above yesterday morning ascended to 17 plus at noon, and continued up to 20 above at 6 p.m. The snow had brought .14 of an inch precipitation to give this vicinity an excess of .02 of an inch for the month to date.
[Helena Independent; April 5, 1936]

In Event $100,000 Bond Election Is Passed

Oliver G. Bowen, consultant engineer of Los Angeles, who upon recommendation of the public works administration was employed by the school board as structural engineer for rehabilitation of the damaged Helena high school, will check plans and specifications for the Bryant and Hawthorne schools in event the $100,000 bond election set for June 11 is successful, according to action taken by the board last night.
Plans for the rehabilitation of the Hawthorne and reconstruction of the Bryant practically are completed, R. C. Hugenin, of the architectural firm of Hugenin and DeKay, told board members last night. Mr. Bowen said he had made preliminary examination of the plans and that they appeared to be so well executed that little alteration for earthquake-resistancy would be necessary.
Seniors Protest
Work on the two structures can be begun within a short time after June 11, it was said, if 51 per cent of the qualified voters in school district No. 1 authorize the board to issue bonds to the amount of $100,000 to cover cost of the projects. Parent Teacher associations, civic organizations and service clubs in Helena are supporting the move to equip the district with satisfactory grade school facilities.
Representing the senior class of the high school, James Cummings appeared before the school board last night and stated that the class desired their commencement exercises to be held in the Shrine temple instead of the Consistory temple, as scheduled by W. W. Wahl, high school principal.
Cummings pointed out that the Consistory temple would accommodate only 600 people, not permitting admittance to the number of persons desiring to attend the ceremonies. The board had been informed the Consistory temple could be obtained for a rental fee of $12.50. L. S. Hazard, chairman of the board, said the Shrine temple, capable of seating 2,300 persons, could be obtained for approximately $50 for the night's ceremonies.
Cummings said the majority of the seniors were in favor of using the Shrine temple, but that Mr. Wahl had made plans for the exercises to be held in the Consistory. Mr. Hazard, and other board members, told Mr. Cummings the class' wish in the matter would be fulfilled, and the board consented to rent the larger hall for the ceremonies.
Invitational bid form for the demolition work necessary on the high school building were presented to the board by Mr. Hugenin and Mr. Bowen, and were approved by the trustees. Demolition work on the structure will be done on a cost plus fixed fee basis. The bid forms will be sent to Washington for approval, and the date of submission of the bids will be set by PWA authorities.
[Helena Independent; May 28, 1936]

Return to Newspaper Summary for Articles 300-351.

Return to Helena Earthquake Summary.

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